Tuesday, 1 March 2016

Patriarchy and Politics of Land among the Chagga of Tanzania: Gender and Feminist Perspectives

Dr. Elinami V. Swai (College of Education, University of Dodoma, Tanzania)
Using gender and feminist theoretical imperatives, this paper examines the politics of land among the Chagga people of Tanzania. It argues that whereas land has always determined the place of women and men in society in Tanzania, ownership regimes have remained patriarchal in nature and need to change in order for society to achieve holistic development. 

Utilizing the social change theoretical approach and its tenets concerning societal transformation based on resource utilization, I deploy the Chagga people of Tanzania and the role of gendered politics in land as a case study. The paper will demonstrate that land plays a very central role in the Chagga cultural and social milieu and allocates power and authority to men and women.


Despite new lifestyles and economic opportunities, land has continued to play a crucial role in survival and subsistence among the Chagga of Tanzania over the years. Why have land policies favoured men? What can be done to create a balance in land ownership? The case of the Chagga is a compelling one, because in Tanzania, local small scale producers account for almost 80 per cent of food, compared to other countries in Africa where large scale famers produce the bulk of food in the market.

 Women constitute the majority of the labour force as well as leading producers and yet they do not have ownership of the land. They use both Western and indigenous knowledge systems and material technology, in farming and raising livestock. Although every village in Tanzania has a fair share of small scale farmers, the Chagga society is different because it is the women who provide the backbone of the Chagga economy compared to other societies in Tanzania where men dominate economic production.

Tanzania: Situation of female victims of domestic violence, including legislation and availability of state protection and support services (2012- July 2015)

PublisherCanada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Publication Date26 August 2015
Citation / Document SymbolTZA105300.E
Related DocumentTanzanie : information sur la situation des femmes victimes de violence conjugale, y compris les lois, la protection offerte par l'État et les services de soutien (2012-juillet 2015)
Cite asCanada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Tanzania: Situation of female victims of domestic violence, including legislation and availability of state protection and support services (2012- July 2015), 26 August 2015, TZA105300.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/55ffaa004.html [accessed 1 March 2016]
CommentsThis Response replaces TZA105235.E of 4 August 2015.
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.
1. Overview
Sources indicate that domestic violence in Tanzania is "widespread" (US 25 June 2015, 21; LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 166; AI 25 Feb. 2015). According to Freedom House, domestic violence and rape are "reportedly common" (Freedom House 2015). According to Amnesty International (AI), 26 women in the town of Mbeya and 27 in Geita were killed as a result of domestic violence during the first half of 2014 (AI 25 Feb. 2015). The Citizen, a Tanzanian newspaper owned by the East African media company, Nation Media Group (Nation Media Group n.d.), reports that "[d]omestic violence [is] the most common and widespread form of violence in Tanzania" and notes that "at least" 6 out of 10 women in Tanzania have experienced domestic violence either within marriage or "in the domestic environs" (The Citizen 25 June 2015). Similarly, the US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014 quotes the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) as stating that the two most prevalent forms of gender-based violence (GBV) in Tanzania are wife battering (30 percent of all cases of GBV) and marital rape (12 percent of all cases of GBV) (US 25 June 2015, 21). According to an entry in We Write for Rights, a human rights blog administered by students of journalism at St. Augustine University of Tanzania [1], "one in every four women" in Tanzania experience domestic violence (We Write for Rights 11 Aug. 2013). According to a joint human rights report by the Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) of Tanzania and the Zanzibar Legal Services Centre (ZLSC) [2], Tanzanian police statistics indicate that 964 cases of domestic violence were reported to authorities in 2013 (LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 167). Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
Sources state that women in Tanzania are taught to tolerate and accept acts of domestic violence perpetrated against them (McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 19; Reuters 25 July 2013). An article published by the Tanzania Daily News, a newspaper owned by the government of Tanzania media corporation, Tanzania Standard Newspapers Ltd. (Tanzania Standard Newspapers Ltd. n.d.), indicates that "[p]revailing gender norms show that sexual violence such as rape in intimate relationships are still considered culturally acceptable" (The Tanzania Daily News 8 July 2010). The report written by the LHRC and ZLSC similarly notes that many Tanzanians "believe that beating women is an acceptable practice" and that "women believe that they are supposed to be submissive to their husbands" (LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 167). According to a report on GBV in Tanzania written by the International Center for Research on Women [3], which collected data through interviews with male and female participants in the Dar es Salaam, Iringa, and Mbeya regions of Tanzania, "[p]hysical violence is largely viewed as part of marriage. Women explained that they come to expect and even accept this violence because of prevailing community norms" (McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 19). The same study indicates that the majority of participants claim that "being beaten by a partner," "depriving a wife of basic needs, including clothing and food," and "name calling, yelling and threats" towards a partner in the home, are all "acceptable" behaviours within domestic spaces (ibid. 18, 20, 21).
According to sources, female victims of domestic violence rarely report incidents to the authorities due to cultural, social, and family pressures (US 25 June 2015, 21; LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 167). The ICRW report states that typically, married women are expected to consult with their husband's relatives before reporting domestic violence to the police and that "[o]nly when a problem cannot be solved within the family or immediate social network is it socially acceptable to approach external sources of support" (McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 25). Other sources list the following reasons for which women do not report incidents of domestic violence: the fear of retaliation from their husbands (LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 167; US 25 June 2015, 22); the fear of losing economic support (ibid.; HDT June 2011, 6); and the desire to protect their children (ibid.; LHRC and ZLSC Mar. 2014, 167).
2. Legislation
Sources indicate that Tanzania does not have a law that specifically addresses domestic violence (The Citizen 25 June 2015; We Write for Rights 25 Aug. 2013). According to sources, violence against married women is addressed in the Law of Marriage Act (2002) (HDT 2011, 6; McCleary Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 12). Article 66 states that, "[f]or the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that, notwithstanding any custom to the contrary, no person has any right to inflict corporal punishment on his or her spouse" (Tanzania 1971). According to the ICRW report, a definition of "'corporal punishment'" is not provided in the Law of Marriage Act, and so it is "open to interpretation and excludes non-physical forms of violence" (McCleary Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 12). The same source states that the law is "not specific on the penalty for non-compliance," it does not recognize marital rape or provide legal protection for unmarried women against violence, and completely excludes some forms of economic violence (ibid.).
According to the ICRW report, the Sexual Offenses Special Provisions Act (1998) "criminalizes various forms of GBV, including rape, sexual assault and harassment, female genital cutting (for girls ages 18 years and younger) and sex trafficking" (McCleary Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 12). A 2011 report published by Human Development Trust (HDT), a Tanzanian NGO that focuses on health improvements especially in Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, and Kagera (HDT. n.d.), also states that the Act contains a provision for rape which applies to "'non-consensual sexual intercourse between a man and a girl or woman, where the girl or woman is not the man's spouse or the man is a separated spouse'" (ibid. 2011, 14). However, sources indicate that marital rape is not covered in the Act (ibid.; McCleary Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 12) and thus "is not recognized as an illegal act" (ibid.).
HDT notes that both the Law of Marriage Act and the Sexual Offenses Special Provisions Act have "little impact" because they do not protect unmarried women from domestic violence, they do not define corporal punishment, and they exclude non-physical forms of domestic violence, such as "economic deprivation" (HDT 2011, 6).
3. State Protection
3.1 Police
Sources state that the Tanzanian police operate gender and children's desks where women can report instances of domestic violence (US 25 June 2015, 22; UN 26 Nov. 2013; JHR 14 Jan. 2014). According to Deutsche Welle (DW), a German international news provider (DW n.d.), gender desks "are dedicated units in each police station consisting of reception area, interview and counseling room, resting area and an office. They are manned by women police officers" (ibid. 3 Dec. 2013). The UNICEF similarly reports that gender and children's desks are specialist units in each police station staffed by specially trained officers that offer "safe spaces" for domestic violence victims to report incidents (UN 26 Nov. 2013). According to the 2011 HDT report, gender desks allow GBV reports to be filed in "separate rooms instead of … the police station's lobby" and victims are able to interact with female officers exclusively (HDT June 2011, 9). An article published in January 2014 by Journalists for Human Rights (JHR), a Canadian media development organization that empowers journalists to cover human rights stories objectively and effectively (JHR n.d.), indicated that there were more than 400 desks within Tanzanian police stations that were specially trained to handle GBV cases at that time (ibid. 14 Jan. 2014).
According to an informational guidance note released by the Tanzania Police Force and the UN, all GBV matters are first reported at the nearest Gender and Children's Desk, found within every police station (Tanzania Police and UN Tanzania n.d.). The same source reports that the police will file a case and the victim will sign a statement on the "Police Form 2A" (ibid.). Sources report that a police officer will then give the victim a "Police Form 3 (PF3)" (ibid.; McCleary-Sills et al. 2003, 28), which is required if a victim wishes to take legal action against a perpetrator and is "used as the basis of her case" (ibid.). According to the note produced by the Tanzanian Police and the UN, the PF3 form is then taken to the hospital where a doctor will record any evidence of physical trauma on the victim to be used in both the investigation and court proceedings (Tanzania Police and UN Tanzania n.d.). After the case has been reported, desk officers are supposed to put the victim in touch with support services (ibid.). Sources report that these same officers are also supposed to help victims find temporary shelter, if needed (ibid.; McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 29).
Sources indicate that corruption within the Tanzanian police forces stands as a barrier for women to report instances of domestic violence (DW 3 Dec. 2013; McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 51). According to the ICRW report, police officers have been known to refuse to open case files on behalf of victims, even after receiving a bribe (ibid.). Transparency International's (TI) East African Bribery Index 2014 reports that the Tanzania Police Force is the most corrupt agency within the country (TI 2014, 38). The same source states that there was a 23 percent chance of an individual being asked to pay a bribe by the police to access services and a 42.9 percent chance of the individual paying this bribe (ibid., 39).
3.2 Judiciary
According to the ICRW report, Tanzania has no separate court system for family matters and thus GBV cases are tried in general courtrooms where criminal cases are held (McCleary-Sills et al. Mar. 2013, 28). A 2013 article published by the Tanzania Daily News indicates that the judiciary system is under-resourced and "struggling to deal with … the magnitude of cases" (The Tanzania Daily News 16 Oct. 2013). The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) similarly reports that the problem of "pending GBV cases is not uncommon in Zanzibar" (UN 16 May 2014). The same source quotes the Zanzibar Female Lawyers Association (ZAFELA) as stating that "among 30 cases reported in Mwera and Mfenesini district courts in the period of one year (2013), only one third of the cases have reached a justice stage"; seven offenders were convicted, three were released, and 20 cases remain pending (ibid.). According to sources, domestic violence cases are "rarely prosecuted" by the authorities (US 25 June 2015, 21; Freedom House 2015). According to Country Reports 2014, many individuals who faced GBV charges in court in 2014 "were set free" due to corruption, a "lack of evidence, poor investigations, and poor evidentiary preservation" (US 25 June 2015, 22).
Freedom House reports that Tanzania's judiciary "suffers from underfunding and corruption," and that the "[r]ule of law does not always prevail in civil and criminal matters" (Freedom House 2015). TI's 2014 East African Bribery Index further states that the judiciary stands as the second most corrupt institution in Tanzania, second only to the police (TI 2014, 38).
4. Support Services
4.1 Shelters and One-Stop Centres
Sources report that there are "one-stop centres" in Tanzania that provide resources to GBV victims (The Tanzania Daily News 16 Oct. 2013; US 25 June 2015, 22; JHR 14 Jan. 2014). According to JHR, Dar es Salaam opened its first one-stop centre in 2014, which offers "an umbrella of essential services to victims of GBV such as counseling, legal aid, and healthcare" (ibid.). Country Reports 2014 notes that Zanzibar has one-stop centres in Unguja and Pemba where "victims could receive health services, counseling, legal assistance, and a referral to police at the same location" (US 25 June 2015, 22). The Tanzania Daily News similarly indicates that Zanzibar has five one-stop centres where GBV victims can "denounce the crime, receive medical support and legal advice in the same place, at the same time ensuring the evidence for the crime will be preserved" (The Tanzania Daily News 16 Oct. 2013). Information on one-stop centres located outside of Zanzibar or Dar es Salaam could not be found by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
According to sources, Tanzania has shelter services available for female victims of violence in Dar es Salaam (ibid. 8 July 2010), Zanzibar (ibid. 16 Oct. 2013), and Moshi (CACHA n.d.b). A 2010 article published by the Tanzania Daily News states that the House of Peace, established in 2002, is the only crisis centre in Dar es Salaam that provides "temporary shelter for women and children who are victims of gender based violence" (The Tanzania Daily News 8 July 2010). The same article states that the House of Peace "provides shelter, legal and health care, food and clothing to women and children survivors of gender-based violence" and that, at the time or reporting, it was accommodating 33 women and 17 children (ibid.). A subsequent article published by the Tanzania Daily News notes that Zanzibar established two "'safe homes'" in 2013, one in Pemba and the other in Unguja (ibid. 16 Oct. 2013). The government of Zanzibar reportedly dedicated 10 million dollars to support the project and each safe house has a social worker on site (ibid.). The Canada Africa Community Health Alliance (CACHA), a Canadian NGO dedicated to facilitating public health developments in Africa (CACHA n.d.a), also notes that it operates a shelter in Moshi, Tanzania which provides temporary respite for up to six women and their children (ibid. n.d.b). The same source states that women at the shelter are provided with meals, clothing, medical care, and counseling services (ibid.). The CACHA staff also helps temporary shelter residents explore long-term solutions, "such as reconciliation with family members, permanent lodging, vocational training, business education, and micro-loans" (ibid.).
Information on the availability of shelter services outside of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, or Moshi could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
4.2 Legal Aid Services and Hotlines
Sources indicate that GBV victims in Tanzania who are unable to afford legal representation are able to access legal aid through the Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA) and the Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) (TAWLA n.d.a; LHRC n.d.). According to the website of TAWLA, a Dar es Salaam NGO (TAWLA n.d.a), its first priority is "providing legal aid services to vulnerable women and children" (ibid. n.d.b).
The Women's Legal Aid Centre (WLAC) also provides legal aid to women and children in need (WLAC n.d.b). The website of the WLAC states that it provides "reconciliation, client coaching, case follow-up, in-court representation, document drafting services, and legal and human rights education" (WLAC n.d.a). According to their website, the centre also provides mobile legal aid clinics administered out of a converted vehicle, to offer services to women in "remote communities" (ibid.). The centre also operates a toll-free hotline, which provides legal information to female victims of violence anywhere in Tanzania (ibid.). According to the centre's website, the hotline can be accessed through three telephone numbers: via Vodacom: 0757-726660, via Tigo: 0658-999555, and via Airtel: 0785-066555 (ibid.).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
[1] The initiative of We Write for Rights was "developed through a mentorship program with Canada's leading media development organization, Journalists for Human Rights (JHR)" (We Write for Rights n.d.).
[2] The Legal and Human Rights Centre of Tanzania (LHRC) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization based in Tanzania that "create[s] legal and human rights awareness among the public" while also offering legal aid services to the underprivileged (LHRC n.d.). The Zanzibar Legal Services Centre (ZLSC) is a Tanzanian NGO which provides legal aid services to women, children, the poor, and disadvantaged citizens of Zanzibar (SALAN n.d.).
[3] The ICRW works with partners to "conduct empirical research, build capacity and advocate for evidence-based, practical ways to change policies and programs" to advance gender equality in the developing world (ICRW n.d.).

It’s the barriers to communication which hurt the girl child

​​who believes that girls should experience happy childhoods, free of violence and discrimination.
This year in Tanzania, the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children along with the United Nations have declared the focus to be on ‘Girl Power’ – the power of girls to contribute to national progress and help transform our world. Gender equality is among the 17 Global Goals endorsed last month by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the Year 2030 agenda for sustainable development. The Global Goals will give Tanzania and all other United Nations member states the opportunity to commit to ending conditions of poverty, violence, exclusion and discrimination – towards realizing our vision of a world where there is dignity for all, including girls.

Great progress has been achieved in Tanzania to improve the status of children. Still however, many girls and young women face undue threats to their well-being. Girls are affected by unwanted pregnancies which contribute to the nation’s high rate of mothers dying in childbirth, and by harmful practices such as child marriage and female genital mutilation. Girls may be discriminated against in the workforce. And too often, girls suffer from sexual and gender-based violence in the very places where they should be protected – in their homes, schools or workplaces, in their neighborhoods and even at school and in sports scenes.
How can we, as a community, better support and encourage girls, so that they are aware of and claim their rights, and use their power to transform their future? One way is by opening the lines of communication and becoming advocates for the laws and policies that make a difference for girls and young women. Another big factor that activates ‘Girl Power’ is education. The relationship between girls’ education and a good future is well established.
Adolescent girls in Tanzania have tremendous potential. They will from part of the workforce to contribute to the sustainable growth of the economy. For that potential to become a reality, society must commit to making certain critical investments – high quality education, skills training, access to technology and other learning initiatives – which will prepare girls for healthy lives, social participation, and economic and leadership contributions. In the run-up to the 2015 general election, we urge democratically elected representatives to listen to girls’ voices and commit to act to help improve their lives. Adolescents will rise to become the voters and leaders of tomorrow, making it crucial to engage them fully in understanding better the issues that will have an impact on their future.
A girl growing up needs someone to trust that she can confide in and also someone who can listen to her express her hopes and dreams, while providing sound guidance that will ensure they reach their full potential. Traditionally, this would be her mother; yet any interested adult can contribute their caring and advice. Fathers especially, can rally behind their daughters and teach them to expect nothing less than full respect and equal rights. Relatives and neighbors too, can support girls to prevent them falling victim to physical, sexual or emotional abuse.
Getting accurate, timely and appropriate information is important for girls. With the right information, they will be able to make good choices. Both girls and boys need to understand their changing bodies to appreciate how to protect their health. This includes providing girls (and their parents and caretakers) with information about health and nutrition suitable to the adolescent years, including the facts about sexual and reproductive health and rights.
Many girls, both in rural and urban areas, do not have access to correct information about their sexual and reproductive health and rights, nor do they have access to information about protection, including avoiding early sexual activity and the use of contraceptives for family planning. This vital knowledge can prevent girls from being led into motherhood at a tender age. Let’s try to bridge the gap of girls who drop out of school due to pregnancy and ensure that all girls who become pregnant or married before completing their education shall have the opportunity to continue with their education, in recognition of the importance of investing in adolescent girls’ empowerment and rights.
Over the years, the United Nations agencies in Tanzania have supported the Government and people in communities across the country to ensure that girl children receive proper care and services, and have their educational needs met. Jointly, we are assisting efforts to prevent child marriage and to provide outreach services for children and youth. We partner with the responsible Ministries of Government to develop policies and guidelines on adolescent sexual and reproductive health.
For example, to strengthen protective systems, police are receiving training in cooperation with UNFPA and UNWomen, to offer an effective response when young women and girls confront violence. UNICEF and WHO help communities to access good health, better education, clean water and sanitation. UNESCO is providing alternative learning opportunities to young mothers forced out of school after pregnancy or early marriage, and supporting schoolgirls at risk of dropping out through empowerment activities designed help them achieve their educational aspirations. The UN encourages dialogue among elders and youth. This is raising awareness about the rights of women and girls. Girls in Kahama are producing their own radio programmes to voice their concerns. We also are working with communities in places like Mara to aid girls to keep their culture, while undergoing safe alternative rites of passage instead of female genital mutilation.
By joining hands, all of us – fathers, mothers, aunties, uncles, teachers, religious leaders, policy setters and decision-makers – can mark the new era of the Global Goals by taking good decisions that will help to change the fate of girls in Tanzania. Providing girls with vital information about their rights and responsibilities is an important step in this direction.
Now is the time to break the silence and talk to our daughters – to help them activate their ‘Girl Power’ and soar above the clouds.​
- See more at: http://tanzania.unfpa.org/news/it%E2%80%99s-barriers-communication-which-hurt-girl-child#sthash.H5jaho52.dpuf



Child marriage is a traditional practice that in many places happens simply because it has happened for generations – and straying from tradition could mean exclusion from the community. But as Graça Machel, widow of Nelson Mandela, says, traditions are made by people – we can change them.


In many communities where child marriage is practised, girls are not valued as much as boys – they are seen as a burden. The challenge will be to change parents’ attitudes and emphasise that girls who avoid early marriage and stay in school will likely be able to make a greater contribution to their family and their community in the long term.


Where poverty is acute, giving a daughter in marriage allows parents to reduce family expenses by ensuring they have one less person to feed, clothe and educate. In communities where a dowry or ‘bride price’ is paid, it is often welcome income for poor families; in those where the bride’s family pay the groom a dowry, they often have to pay less money if the bride is young and uneducated.


Many parents marry off their daughters young because they feel it is in her best interest, often to ensure her safety in areas where girls are at high risk of physical or sexual assault.


"'Til Death do us Part": Understanding the Sexual and Reproductive Health Risks of Early Marriage

Childhood and adolescence are usually the greatest years of one’s life. This period is cut short, however, when marriage and adult responsibilities come too early. Although most nations have declared 18 as the legal minimum age to enter into marriage, in many developing countries the practice of early marriage for girls is widespread. In 2002, the Population Council predicted that over the following decade more than 100 million girls worldwide would marry before their 18thbirthday. Some of these girls will marry as young as eight or nine, and many will marry against their will.
There are many consequences of child marriage on young girls’ sexual and reproductive health, and many of the meaningful life experiences of adolescence are lost forever. 

(Not so) Good Intentions

The decision for a young girl to marry is most often made by her parents or the community. Social and gender norms, cultural beliefs and economic situations all contribute to the pressure put on girls to marry at a young age. Some parents believe that, by marrying their daughter at an early age, they are helping her to fulfill her main societal function – that of wife and mother. They may also believe that they are providing her with protection by limiting sexual relations to only one partner (and therefore reducing the risk of STIs and HIV), and by ensuring some kind of financial stability for both the daughter and the family.
No matter how good their intentions may be, the reality is that an early marriage generally offers no protection at all – in fact, the opposite is generally true – and it strips many young girls of their childhood, their dreams, their basic human rights and their health.

Sacrificed health

Though parents may believe they are protecting their daughter from STI and HIV transmission, they are typically putting their child more at risk. Husbands are often considerably older and have more sexual experience, sometimes entering the marriage already infected with STIs or HIV. Studies in parts of Kenya and Zambia show that teenage brides are contracting HIV at a faster rate than sexually active single girls in the same location.
Child brides face much pressure to have children soon after marriage, which not only interrupts efforts to reduce STI transmission through use of condoms, but also puts the girl at an increased risk of maternal death. Girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including obstetric fistula. They are also more likely to have children with low birth weight, inadequate nutrition and anemia. The health of these young mothers is further compromised, as they are also more likely to develop cervical cancer later in life.
“Married adolescents have been largely ignored in development and health agendas because of the perception that their married status ensures them a safe passage to adulthood. Nothing could be further from the truth.”
          - Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, UNFPA Executive Director



The lack of power associated with child marriage poses additional reproductive health risks. Young wives often have limited autonomy and freedom, and are unable to negotiate sexual relations, contraceptive use, childbearing, and other aspects of domestic life. The inability to negotiate condom use puts them in a vulnerable position for contracting STIs and HIV.
Unequal gender relations and the large age difference between husbands and young wives also increases the likelihood of domestic violence. Women who marry young are more likely to be beaten or threatened, and are most likely to believe that a husband’s violence is justified.


Once married, young girls are typically forced to leave behind their family, friends and community and move to their new husband’s home. Their ability to attend school is disrupted, eliminating another source of social support and interrupting their education. With limited freedom to leave the home and converse with others, girls are left in isolation with little or no means of receiving information on reproductive health issues. They are often powerless to access health care services, as they may need permission to receive such services; if refused, they are typically unable to pay for health care services. Without health information or social services, married girls are unable to seek support. Their problems remain unknown or ignored by the community, and they becomes invisible victims.

Dream no more

Early marriage results in a loss of childhood. Girls are inhibited from realizing their dreams and aspirations. Their rights are violated and they lose the ability to choose how their life is fulfilled. Their right to choose when they become pregnant and how many children they will have is no longer theirs. Their sexual and reproductive health is sacrificed, sometimes to the point of causing death.
“I was promised to a man before I was 10. It was a traditional wedding. When the time came, I was sent over to my husband’s family. And when I saw him, I realized he was older than my daddy.”
          - Excerpt from the film 'Too Brief a Child'

Change is difficult

Changing social and gender norms is never easy. Families and communities, including boys and men, need to understand the risks associated with child marriage and become engaged in the process of making change. Powerless and isolated, married girls are in need of our support. But what can be done?
Providing opportunities for girls to continue their education or earn money, while expanding their skills and available choices in life, is one effective strategy to delay marriage. In Bangladesh, the implementation of a secondary school scholarship program for girls resulted in a declined rate of early marriage. The expansion of schooling and provision of job training helps to increase the autonomy and freedom of girls.
Although laws forbidding early marriage exist in most countries, much effort is still needed to ensure enforcement of such laws. Further work needs to be done to reduce the barriers young women face in seeking out health services and information outside their marital households, including access to family planning programs. Youth programs are effective in educating and empowering young women (as well as young men) about reproductive health and rights. Such programs should be encouraged and available not only in schools, but in communities and rural areas as well. Public education and advocacy projects that target policy-makers could be useful in preventing early marriage and in making visible the problems and risks that young brides face. 
No matter what efforts are used to instill change, one thing remains certain: young girls' health, education, and social and economic needs should be addressed holistically and simultaneously. In addressing change in attitudes amongst communities, cultural and religious traditions need to be considered and integrated into the solution.

TANZANIA Yatajwa Katika Nchi Vinara wa Ndoa za Utotoni Duniani

Imeelezwa kuwa Tanzania ni moja ya nchi ambayo bado inakabiliwa na changamoto ya ndoa za utotoni ambazo husabishwa na mila potufu, elimu duni na  umaskini unaopelekea wazazi kuwa na tamaa za kupata mali ili waweze kukidhi haja zao pamoja na sheria kandamizi.

Kwa mujibu wa takwimu kutoka Shirika la watu duniani (UNFPA) imeonyesha kuwa Tanzania ni nchi ya tatu inayoongoza kwa ndoa za utotoni duniani kwa kuwa na kiwango cha juu ukilinganisha na nchi zingine duniani.

Akielezea kuhusu ripoti hiyo, ofisini kwake,Mwanasheria wa TAMWA Bi. Loyce Gondwe alisema kuwa mikoa inayoongoza kwa ndoa za utotoni ni Shinyanga, Tabora, Mara, Dodoma, Lindi, Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, Manyara, Mtwara, Pwani, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Kigoma, Dar Es salaam na Iringa.

Bi.Gondwe, alisema kuwa kwa mujibu wa sheria ya ndoa ya mwaka 1971 kifungu cha 13 kimeruhusu mtoto wa kike mwenye umri wa miaka 14 kuolewa kwa ridhaa ya mahakama na miaka 15 kwa ridhaa ya wazazi na mtoto wa kiume aliyefikisha umri wa miaka 18 anaweza kuoa.

Ameendelea kusema kuwa licha ya kuwepo kwa sheria ya mtoto ya mwaka 2009, inayotafsiri kwamba mtoto ni mtu yeyote mwenye umri chini ya miaka 18 bado sheria ya ndoa ya mwaka 1971 inawaruhusu watoto wa kike chini ya miaka 18 kuolewa na hivyo sheria ya ndoa kukinzana na sheria zingine.

Hata hivyo, alisema licha ya Tanzania kuridhia mikataba mbalimbali ya kimataifa inayopinga na kuzuia ndoa za utotoni, kama Mkataba wa Haki za watoto wa mwaka 1989, ambao unamtafsiri mtoto kama yeyote mwenye umri chini ya miaka 18 na Tamko la Haki za Binadamu ulimwenguni la mwaka 1948, Ibara ya 16(2) bado tatizo la ndoa za utotoni limeendelea kuwepo.

Naye mratibu wa kituo cha usuluhishi TAMWA, Bi. Gladness Munuo alisema kuwa ndoa za utotoni zina madhara mengi kwa mtoto ikiwemo kumyima haki yake ya msingi ya kupata elimu na hivyo kumpotezea ndoto zake za kimaisha.

Bi. Munuo alisema Ndoa za utotoni zinaweza kuleta madhara ya kiafya kwa mtoto ikiwemo magonjwa ya fistula, ulemavu wa kudumu kwa sababu viungo haviko tayari kushiriki tendo la ndoa na kushika mimba.

Aliendelea kusema kuwa mtoto mdogo anapoingia kwenye ndoa anakumbana na changamoto kubwa zingine za ndoa, kwa mfano migogoro ya ndoa kama vile kupigwa, kufukuzwa, ulevi, utelekezwaji ambavyo hupelekea madhara makubwa kwa mtoto katika maisha yake.

Hata hivyo alitoa wito kwa serikali, jamii, watu binafsi na  taasisi mbalimbali kulinda haki za watoto  ikiwemo kuchukua hatua ya kutoa taarifa sehemu husika ili suala hilo liweze kuchukuliwa hatua na kutatuliwa.

early marriage


this is how women circumcision operates, we have to fight against it all over..!!


Ukeketaji: Mila hatari ambayo bado inayosherehekewa Tanzania

KWA mujibu wa Shirika la Afya Duniani (WHO) kati ya wanawake na wasichana milioni 100 hadi milioni 140 duniani kote, wamefanyiwa ukeketaji ambapo kati yao milioni 92 wapo barani Afrika.
Ukeketaji unatajwa kuwa moja ya ukatili wa kijinsia kwa mtoto wa kike na wanawake na pia ni ukiukwaji wa haki za binadamu, ingawa ukatili huo unaendelea kufanyika na kusherehekewa na familia pamoja na jamii husika. Kwa mujibu wa WHO, matatizo mengi hutokea baada ya msichana au mwanamke kufanyiwa ukeketaji ikiwemo kutoka damu kupita kiasi, mshtuko, ugumu katika kupitisha mkojo, matatizo wakati wa kujifungua, maambukizi yakiwemo virusi vya Ukimwi na hata kifo.
Lingine lisilotajwa na WHO ni kwamba ukeketaji unachangia kuvunja ndoa kwa sababu katika jamii ya sasa yenye mchanganyiko mkubwa, mwanaume akifanya mapenzi na asiyekeketwa huona raha zaidi, hali ambayo inafanya ndioa za waliokeketwa kuwa hatarini. Tatizo lingine kwa wasichana waliokeketwa katika zama hizi, msichana huogopa kupata rafiki wa kiume asiye wa jamii yake na anapompata huwa na mashaka akichunga mwanaume huyo ‘asimguse’.
“Ukeketaji kwa wasichana na wanawake unaendelea kufanyika katika maeneo mengi bila kujali ni kosa la jinai kwa mujibu ya sheria ya kanuni ya adhabu,” maneno hayo yanasemwa na Mkurugenzi wa Shirika lisilokuwa la Kiserikali linalopinga ukatili dhidi ya wanawake na watoto (AFNET), Sarah Mwaga. Mwanga aliyasema hayo wakati akitoa tamko la Mtandao wa Mashirika yanayopinga ukeketaji Tanzania wakati wa siku ya kimataifa ya kupinga ukeketaji duniani inayofanyika kila Februari sita.
Kila Februari 6, Jumuiya ya kimataifa inaadhimisha siku ya kimataifa ya kupambana na vitendo vya ukeketaji vinavyodhalilisha utu na heshima ya mwanamke na msichana sehemu mbalimbali za dunia. Anasema jamii zinazofanyiwa vitendo hivyo zimeendelea kutafuta mbinu mpya ikiwemo kukeketa watoto wadogo mara wanapozaliwa. Mwaga anasema kwa takwimu za hivi karibuni takribani asilimia 15 ya watoto wa kike hukeketwa Tanzania ambapo takwimu hizo ni za kitaifa na kuna maeneo mengine ambapo asilimia hiyo iko juu kuliko ya kitaifa.
“Madhara ya ukeketaji ni makubwa na humwandama mwanamke katika maisha yake yote. Madhara mengine yanaonekana wazi, lakini mengine hujificha na kuibuka kidogo kidogo,” anasema. Anayataja madhara haya ni pamoja na kisaikolojia kutokana na maumivu makali ya kukatwa na kisu au wembe wa ngariba, kuuguza kidonda, maambukizi kwenye njia ya uzazi na ile ya haja ndogo, kupoteza damu nyingi na uwezekano wa kupoteza maisha, matatizo wakati wa kujifungua yakiongeza uwezekano wa kupata fistula, kuambukizwa VVU/ Ukimwi na pepo punda.
Akitoa mfano anasema kwa mkoa wa Mara, mwaka 2014 ulikuwa ni mwaka wa ukeketaji kwa mujibu wa jamii ambazo zinadumisha mila hiyo ambapo wameshuhudia idadi kubwa kabisa ya watoto waliokeketwa pamoja na jitihada nyingi ambazo zimekuwa zikifanyika kukomesha vitendo hivyo. Katika wilaya ya Tarime ambayo ndio ina jamii zinazokeketa pamoja na Serengeti, takriban watoto 1,400 wamekeketwa na watoto hao ni kutoka katika koo za Bukira watoto 212, Bukenye watoto 230, Iregi watoto 800 na Nyabasi watoto 169.
Mkoani Mara, makabila ya Wajita wanaopatikana Musoma Vijijini, Bunda na Butiama pamoja na Wajaluo ambao wengi wao wako wilayani Tarime hawakeketi. Aidha katika Wilaya ya Serengeti walikeketwa zaidi ya wasichana 1,000. Pia katika mkoa wa Singida, hususani Wilaya ya Singida Vijijini, watoto hukeketwa wakiwa wachanga, hivyo inakuwa ni vigumu sana kupata takwimu za watoto waliokeketwa.
Kwa mujibu wa Mwaga, utafiti uliofanywa na Jumuiya ya Kikristo Tanzania katika shule moja Singida Vijijini mwaka 2015 ulionesha zaidi ya asilimia 80 ya watoto wa kike katika shule hiyo wamekeketwa lakini hawajui, kwani walifanyiwa hivyo wakiwa wachanga. Anasema wao kama wana mtandao wamekuwa wakikumbana na changamoto nyingi ukiwemo utekelezaji wa sheria dhidi ya ukeketaji kugubikwa na vitendo vya rushwa, urasimu na sintofahamu kwa baadhi ya watendaji wa serikali, hivyo kufanya wale wanaovunja sheria kutochukuliwa hatua zozote au kesi kumalizwa nje ya utaratibu wa sheria.
Kadhalika kuna tatizo la wanasiasa kuogopa kukemea ukeketaji kwa hofu ya kunyimwa kura. Tatizo la urasimu katika sheria hiyo ya ukeketaji wakati mwingine imetajwa kwamba imechangia katika kuchelewesha au kupoteza haki kabisa. Waziri wa Afya, Maendeleo ya Jamii, Jinsia, Wazee na Watoto, Ummy Mwalimu anasema vitendo vya ukeketaji vinatakiwa kupigwa vita kila kona ili viweze kukomeshwa. Anasema kumekuwa na ongezeko kubwa la wasichana waliokeketwa.
Waziri huyo anasema katika mikoa ya Manyara kila watoto 100 basi 71 wamekeketwa, Dodoma kwa kila watoto 100, watoto 64 wamekeketwa, Arusha kwa kila watoto 100, watoto 59 wamekeketwa, mkoani Singida kila watoto 100, watoto 51 wamekeketwa na mkoani Mara kila watoto 100, watoto 40 wamekeketwa. “Hili ni janga ya kitaifa lazima kupambana nalo ambapo pia takwimu zinaonesha kuwa asilimia 15 ya wanawake hapa nchini wamekeketwa.”
Anasema ukubwa wa tatizo la ukeketaji katika mikoa hiyo linatokana na imani potofu na dhana hiyo imeanza kujitokeza katika mikoa mingine kama Dar es Salaam, Morogoro na Pwani kutokana na watu wa makabila mbalimbali kuhamia mikoa hiyo.
“Serikali inapinga, inalaani na kukemea tabia ya kuendelezwa kwa vitendo hivi vya ukatili unaodhalilisha mtoto wa kike na mwanamke kwani unamsababishia madhara makubwa kiafya, kielimu, kisaikolojia na kimaendeleo. “Ndani ya serikali ya Rais John Magufuli tutamaliza vitendo vya ukeketaji. Natoa rai kwa jamii kutoa taarifa kwa Jeshi la Polisi ili mangariba na wakala wa mangariba waweze kujulikana na kuchukuliwa hatua,” anasema.
Waziri pia anawataka maofisa maendeleo ya jamii kushirikiana na Jeshi la Polisi ili kuwezesha kukamatwa kwa mangariba hao. “Maofisa ustawi wa jamii ambao vitendo hivyo vitatokea katika maeneo yao tutawachukulia hatua kuanzia sasa ni lazima washirikiane na viongozi wa kata, vijiji na hata mitaa ili kubaini vitendo hivyo.”
Aidha anasema serikali itaendelea kutekeleza programu mbalimbali za hamasa na elimu kwa jamii zinazojikita katika kubadili fikra na mitazamo ya wananchi dhidi ya ukeketaji. Anabainisha kuwa pamoja na jitihada hizo bado kuna kazi kubwa ya kufanya kwa kuwa suala la kubadili fikra na mitazamo ya jamii haliwezi kuisha kwa siku moja.
“Bado tunashuhudia vitendo vya kukeketa wasichana vikiendelea kutokea miongoni mwa jamii zetu, jambo hili linadhihirisha suala la kutokomeza ukatili wa kijinsia halitakwisha kwa kuitegemea serikali au sheria peke yake,” anasema. Pia serikali itaendelea kutekeleza programu mbalimbali za hamasa na elimu kwa jamii zitakazojikita katika kubadili fikra na mitazamo ya wananchi dhidi ya ukeketaji. “Tutahakikisha sheria zinazomlinda mtoto wa kike na mwanamke zinafuatwa na kutekelezwa ipasavyo ikiwa ni pamoja na kuwachukulia hatua wale wote watakaohusika na ukatili wa kijinsia,” anasema.
Mratibu wa programu za Shirika la Jukwaa la Utu wa Mtoto, Cynthia Mushi alisema tatizo la ukeketaji lipo zaidi barani Afrika, hasa katika nchi za Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger na nchi nyinginezo ikiwemo Tanzania. Pia lengo la Umoja wa Mataifa kuanzisha siku hiyo ni kuhakikisha dunia inafikia ukeketaji sifuri ifikapo 2030.
“Inakadiriwa kuwa wanawake na wasichana milioni 7.9 nchini Tanzania wamefanyiwa ukeketaji na hata ripoti ya afya na utafiti wa kaya ya Tanzania inakadiriwa ukeketaji kwa wasichana na wanawake wa kati ya miaka 15 hadi 49 ni asilimia 14.6 kwa mwaka na hiyo imepungua kidogo kwa asilimia 17.9 mwaka 1996. Anasema siku hiyo iliwekwa na Umoja wa mataifa Desemba 2012 ili kupiga marufuku mila na tamaduni zote zinazoendeleza vitendo vya ukeketaji. “Tatizo la ukeketaji lipo zaidi barani Afrika hasa kwa nchi kama Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger na nchi nyinginezo ikiwemo Tanzania,” anasema.
Mushi anasema lengo la Umoja wa Mataifa kuanzisha siku hiyo ni kuhakikisha dunia inafikia ukeketaji sifuri ifikapo mwaka 2030. Kulingana na Shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa linaloshughulikia idadi ya watu (UNFPA) mwaka 2014 zinaonesha zaidi ya wanawake na wasichana milioni 140 wanakeketwa kila mwaka duniani kote. Pia inakadiriwa kuwa wanawake na wasichana milioni 7.9 nchini Tanzania wamefanyiwa ukeketaji kulingana na takwimu za Shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa na Kuhudumia watoto (UNICEF, 2013).
Aidha kulingana na ripoti ya Afya na Utafiti wa Kaya ya Tanzania (TDHS) inakadiriwa kuwa ukeketaji kwa wasichana na wanawake wa kati ya miaka 15- 49 ni asilimia 14.6 kwa mwaka kwa mujibu wa takwimu za mwaka 2010. Hata hivyo, idadi hiyo imepungua kidogo kutoka asilimia 17.9 mwaka 1996 hali iliyochangiwa na kampeni ya uhamasishaji na uwepo sheria ya kanuni ya adhabu inayozuia vitendo hivyo kama sehemu ya vitendo vuya ukatili dhidi ya mtoto wa kike.
“Kwa kiwango kikubwa, vitendo vya ukeketaji vimekuwa vikihusishwa na sababu mbalimbali ikiwa ni pamoja na mila na desturi, sheria za kibaguzi na utekelezaji duni wa sheria na sera,” anasema. Anasema CDF na wadau wanaopambana na ukeketaji wote kwa pamoja wanatambua jitihada zinazofanywa na serikali katika kupinga ukeketaji ikiwa ni pamoja na kusaini mikataba mbalimbali ya kimataifa kama mkataba wa Umoja wa Mataifa wa haki za mtoto wa mwaka 1989, mkataba wa kupinga aina zote za ukatili kwa wanawake wa mwaka 1979, mkataba wa Afrika juu ya Haki na Ustawi wa Watoto ambayo Tanzania iliridhia mwaka 1991.
Pia Tanzania imeridhia baadhi ya mikataba na kuingiza kwenye sheria za Tanzania hususan kwenye Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na sheria ya kanuni ya adhabu ya Tanzania ambayo inakataza ukeketaji kwa watoto. Anasema CDF kwa msaada wa UNFPA na wadau wengine wa maendeleo imeweza kufanikiwa katika kuwasaidia wasichana ambao tayari wameshaolewa, waliokeketwa na walioathirika na mimba za utotoni kwa kuanzisha na kusaidia vikundi, klabu za wasichana na wavulana ambazo pia hufanya utetezi kama njia ya kuzuia ukiukwaji wa haki za mtoto.
Aidha anasema wameanzisha vilabu 108 vya wasichana na wavulana vilivyopo nje na ndani ya shule zenye wasichana 1,952, wenye umri kati ya miaka 15-20 na mitandao mitatu yenye wanachama 30 kila moja. Mushi anasema wamefanikiwa kuwafikia watoto wa kike na wasichana 2,899 kupitia mafunzo, uhamasishaji na utetezi, kusaidia wasichana na wanawake wadogo 165 kuanzisha shughuli za kuwapatia kipato.
“Tumefikia zaidi ya watu 10,000 katika jamii kupitia kampeni mbalimbali na utetezi, tumefikia wadau wengine ambao ni walimu, Maofisa wa Wilaya na viongozi wa jadi 1,504,” anasema. Pia wamefanikiwa kufanya kazi kwa karibu sana na kituo cha masista wa Huruma Kiitwacho Masanga kilichopo wilayani Tarime ambao hutoa hifadhi kwa wasichana wanaokimbia ukeketaji na ushirikiano huo umeonesha mafanikio makubwa kutokana na ongezeko la wasichana wanaokimbia ukeketaji na kutafuta hifadhi kituoni hapo.
“Kuanzia mwaka 2008 hadi 2015 kituo kimeweza kutoa hifadhi kwa jumla ya wasichana 2,126. Mwamako huo unaonesha jinsi wasichana walivyo na ari ya kukataa ukeketaji,” anasema. Mbali na mafanikio hayo anasema kumekuwa na changamoto katika utekelezaji wa majukumu yao ikiwemo kukosekana kwa miundombinu na mifumo ya ulinzi ambayo inaweza kutoa ulinzi wa kutosha wa wasichana walio katika hatari na walioathirika na ukeketaji na mila zingine kandamizi.
“CDF inaitaka serikali kuwekeza katika raslimali zaidi na kuangalia mahitaji ya msichana ikiwa ni pamoja kuwa na mkakati na raslimali ambazo zitahakikisha maendeleo ya miundombinu ya ulinzi na vituo vya kutoa huduma kwa wasichana walio katika hatari kama vile waathirika wa vitendo viovu kupewa msaada wa kisaikolojia, kisheria na msaada wa matibabu,” anasema.

Ukeketaji ni tatizo la kimataifa, utokomweze ifikapo 2030:UNFPA/UNICEF

Kusikiliza / Hamishia
Asmah Mohamed, mtoto wa miaka 6, akifarijiwa na mama yake baada ya kukeketwa, nchini Kenya. Picha ya UNICEF/NYHQ2005-2229/Getachew

Ikiwa leo ni siku ya kimataifa ya kupinga ukeketaji , shirika la idadi ya watu duniani UNFPA na la kuhudumia watoto UNICEF yamesema ukeketaji ni tatizo la kimataifa lililokwenda mbali zaidi ya Afrika na Mashariki ya Kati ambako vitendo hivyo vimemea mizizi. Sasa umeathiri jamii za Australia, Asia, Ulaya na Amerika ya Kusini na Kaskazini.
Kwa mujibu wa mashirika hayo idadi ya wasichana na wanawake walio katika hatari itaendelea kuongezeka endapo mienendo ya sasa itaendelea kurejesha nyuma mafanikio yaliyopatikana.
Katika taarifa yao ya siku ya kupinga ukeketaji, wakurugenzi wa UNFPA na UNICEF wanasema ukeketaji unachochea ubaguzi dhidi ya wasichana na wanawake na  mwezi Septemba kwenye mkutano wa maendeleo endelevu mataifa 193 yaliafikiana malengo mapya ya kutokomeza ukeketaji ifikapo 2030, hali ambayo imethibitisha kwamba ukeketaji ni janga la kimataifa.
Tarif ahiyo imeongeza kuwa jumuiya ya kimataifa ina wajibu wa kuhakikisha lengo hilo linatimia ili kuwalinda na kuokoa maisha ya mamilioni ya wanawake na wasichana.

we have a full registration..

we must change our children to know how to value education..

traditional dances are one of our key principle of educating society through dances


Naomba leo niweke ufafanuzi hapa wa kile nilichomaanisha katika makala yangu leo.
1.Kuzaa kwa shida:
Hivi ni nani asiyejua madhila wayapatayo wanawake sio tu wa vijijini hata wa mijini. Ni mara ngapi tunaoneshwa picha za wanawake waliojifungua katika Hospiali za mijini wakiwa wamelala wawili wawili kwenye kitanda na wengine wakiwa wamelazwa chini ya sakafu na vichanga vyao, huku vikipigwa na baridi. Huko vijijini napo kuna mengi yanasimuliwa, kuna idadi ya wanawake tena ya kutosha wanaojifungulia majumbani huku wakikosa huduma muhimu za kiafya, achilia mbali wale wanaojifungulia maporini kutokana na umbali mrefu kutoka nyumbani hadi vilipo vituo vya afya.
Sisimulii hadithi za alinacha hapa au hadithi za kufikirika, bali ninachokizungumza nina uhakika nacho na ninakifahamu kwa kuwa muda wangu mwingi nimekuwa nikiutumia vijijini hususana Arusha na Moshi.
2.Kulea kwa shida:
Hili la kulea kwa shida nalo halihitaji maelezao marefu, kwa kuwa kila kitu kiko wazi, kuna idadi ya kutosha ya wanawake wengi vijijini na hata mijini ambao aidha wametelekezwa na waume zao au wameolewa na wanaume amboa ni nusu wafu, yaani sio wazalishaji na badala yake huwaachia wanawake ndio wawe wazalishaji huku wakibeba majukumu mengine ya kifamilia, hebu tembelea kule feri au kwenye masoko ya mboga mboga kwa hapa jijini Dar, kuna idadi kubwa ya wanawake amboa huacha vitanda vyao aliajiri kuwahi feri kununua samaki au masokoni kununua mbogamboga na kuzichuuza. Huko vijijini napo naamini wengi mtakubaliana na mimi kuwa kuna mfumo dume ambao umetamalaki na wanawake wengi wa vijijini hawajui haki zao za msingi. Wanawake wengi wa vijijini hubeba majukumu ya kulea familia wenyewe huku wanaume wakijipa majukumu haba ambayo hayalingani na yale wanayoyabeba wake zao. Je hili nalo linahitaji ushahidi?
3.Kutafuta maji umbali wa kilomita kadhaa tena ya kisima:
kama kuna watu wanaotaabika na shida ya maji, basi ni wanawake na sio wa vijijini tu bali pia wa mijini, ukizungumzia shida ya maji, ni sawa na kuzungumzia madhila wayapatayo wanawake, kwa kule vijinini unaweza kukuta mke na mume wanatoka shamba na wakirudi nyumbani wakati mume anajipumzisha kivulini akipunga upepo, mke hakai chini anachukua ndoo ya maji na kwenda kutafuta maji umbali mrefu tu kwa ajili ya kuogea na kupikia. Kwa huku mijini napo, hata kama wote ni wahangaikaji kwa maan ya kutafuta mkate wa kila siku wa familia, lakini wakirudi nyumbani bado jukumu la kuteka maji linaachiwa mwanamke, niliwahi kukaa kwa mama yangu mdogo kwa muda kule kigogo., kama inavyojulikana kuwa kuna shida kubwa ya maji hasa katika maeneo mengi ya uswahilini katika jiji la Dar, nakumbuka siku hiyo tulikuwa umepanga foleni ili kuteka maji, ilikuwa ni folni ndefu ajabu, lakini cha kushangaza kila akija mwanaume na ndoo anapishwa ateke maji na kuondoka, nilipouliza niliambiwa kuwa wanaume hawapaswi kuweka foleni kwa kuwa wao eti ni watafutaji, kwa hyo wanaruhusiwa kuteka maji ili wakatafutie familia zao mkate wa kila siku. Ia walidai kuwa inawezekana mwanaume akawa anauguliwa na mkewe sasa ni vyema apewe nafasi ya kuteka maji ili awahi kumhudumia mgonjwa. Hizo ni busara za wakaazi wa Kigogo, lakini kwangu hilo halikuwa na mantiki, kwamba wanaume ni watafutaji na ndio sababu ya kupewa fursa ya kuteka maji bila ya kupanga foleni! Na wale wanawake ambo nao ndio watafutaji katika familia zao wanatambuliwa na kupewa nafasi hiyo? Je mnaona jinsi mfume dume unawavyowaingilia vichwani?
4.Kutafuta kuni umbali wa kilomita kadhaa:
Kutafuta kuni umbali mrefu, kama ilivyo katika kutafuta maji hili nalo ni shiranga jingine linalowaadhiri wanawake wa vijijini. Wengi tunafahamu ni kiasi gani wanawake wanataabika katika kutafuta kuni umbali mrefu. Hata watoto wa kike kule vijijini wengi hukwama kuendelea na masomo kutokana na kubebeshwa majukumu mengi ya nyumbani ukilinganisha na watoto wa kiume na hili la kutafuta kuni ni moja ya majukumu ambayo watoto wa kike hubebeshwa tofauti na wale wa kiume.
Kilio cha mwanamke wa Kiafrika ni nani akisikie!?:
Ninaposema kilio cha mwanamke, naangalia majukumu aliyobebeshwa mwanamke ukilinganisha na wanaume. Lakini pamoja na kubebeshwa majukumu yote hayo bado mwanamke huyu ameendelea kustahimili na kubeba majukumu hayo kwa unyenekevu mkubwa.
Kuna simulizi nyinge zinazohusu madhila wayapaayo wanawake katika vyombo vyetu vya habari kila uchao mpaka zimezoeleka masikioni mwa wanaume na ndio maana inaonekana kama vile wanawake ni walalamishi.
Naamini kuwa ufafanuzi huu wanawake watapewa nafasi na kuheshimiwa.