Thursday, 28 April 2016

The State of Education in Tanzania !!

Anne Wadsworth

In 2001, under pressure from international stakeholders, the Tanzanian government established the Primary Education Development Program (PEDP), which made school compulsory for 7- to 15-year-olds and officially abolished mandatory primary school fees as a means of increasing enrollment.
On some level, the program seems to be working. Primary school enrollment did increase from 4.4 million in 2000 to 8.4 million by 2009.[1] But these numbers are misleading. The on-the-ground reality is, many Tanzanian children—roughly 15-20 percent of those under the age 15—do not regularly attend primary school, even if they initially enrolled.[2] And of those that do, only a fraction go on to secondary school, which is the level of education most conducive to becoming an active, engaged citizen capable of precipitating community-wide change. According to the Camfed Tanzania website, Tanzania has the lowest secondary school enrollment rate in Africa, which is concerning given that across sub-Saharan Africa, only 17 percent of girls are enrolled in secondary school.[3] In the Tarime district in the Mara region of Tanzania, where food insecurity is a legitimate concern[4] and life can be altogether difficult, the problem is particularly dire.
The reason for the disparity between primary school enrollment rates and actual educational participation and achievement is nuanced and multifold. At the heart of the problem is the fallacy that primary school is truly free for Tanzanian families. According to one study, the cost of school actually increased in Tanzania between 2000 and 2006, “well above the expected increase in costs due to inflation.”[5] It seems that although the official enrollment fee was eliminated by state decree, in some cases at least, students’ families are still required by local administrators to make contributions toward food, school supplies, security, testing, uniforms, and building and renovation projects. For many parents, the mandatory contributions are prohibitively expensive, and when they cannot make the contribution expected of them, their children are denied schooling.[6]Moreover, given Tanzania’s staunchly patriarchal leanings, too often when a family can only afford to send one child to school, a girl’s education is sacrificed before her male sibling’s. In these cases, a girl must drop out or pay her own way.[7]
Studies suggest that the opportunity cost of losing a child’s labor is also a significant factor in determining whether or not a Tanzanian child will attend/complete school.[8]Unfortunately for girls, the value of their roles as caregivers, farmhands, cattle tenders, firewood collectors, house cleaners, water fetchers, and marketplace vendors makes their education more costly to families.[9] It is a cultural expectation in Tarime and elsewhere in Tanzania that girls dedicate the vast majority of their waking hours to completing hard labor and chores in service of the family, with little or no help from men and boys.

One young girl put it this way:
Life here in Tarime is really hard as all the work is being done by us women, farming, taking care of cattle, cooking, etc. It is really difficult. Take my example; I was married at 15 years, and it’s been 3 years now, and I have no children, but I am so tired of this life.[10]
Poverty, pregnancy, ill-health, lack of facilities, travel distance, and forced withdrawal by parents are other reasons Tanzanian girls cite as obstacles to reaching their desired level of education.[11]
A girl’s value on the marriage market also contributes to the opportunity cost of sending her to school. It is common in many areas of Tanzania for young girls to be given away in marriage, generally without their consent, in exchange for cattle or money—their so-called bride price. In Tarime, girls as young as 11 years old are forced into marriage.[12]As a result of their commoditization, girls’ education, childhoods, and autonomy are sacrificed. Although precise rates of child marriage are notoriously difficult to substantiate, given that many of these unions are unregistered and the topic is taboo, a significant percentage (18.1 percent) of survey respondents residing in the Mara and Mwanza regions of Tanzania admitted a high prevalence of child marriage locally.[13]
Girls’ particular vulnerability as victims of sexual violence also contributes to excessive dropout rates. In a survey conducted by researchers at the University of London, Tanzanian girls reported experiencing regular sexual harassment and violence at the hands of male teachers and pupils, who overcome them physically or coerce them into sexual activity through threats or promises of money and/or favorable grades.[14] In fact, 20 percent of Tanzanian women have been the victims of sexual violence.[15] And sexual activity at an age when or in a situation where a girl does not have the agency to negotiate safe sex practices—whether because of rape, coercion, or early marriage—is a major contributing factor to the alarming rate of new HIV infections among young women.[16] For this reason, parents are typically more comfortable sending girls to schools where the teachers are female, as their daughters are less likely to be exposed to sexual assault and gender bias more generally.[17] Unfortunately, female teachers are the exception, leaving girls and their parents to worry about their safety while at school.
Aside from these and other impediments to attendance, the quality of education in Tanzania is insufficient. According to the World Bank, Tanzania’s student to teacher ratio was 43 to 1 in 2013, compared to 14 to 1 in the United States and 18 to 1 in the United Kingdom. In some areas of Tanzania, classroom size exceeds 60 students per one teacher.[18] In general, the investment in education per student is inadequate.
Tanzanian girls’ active participation and achievement in school is also affected by sociocultural norms that effectuate their disempowerment, harm their senses of self, and contribute to gender-specific health issues. Estimates peg the rate of female genital mutilation (FGM) among Tanzanian women at 18 percent,[19] and experts consider the practice “well-established” in the Mara region despite the fact that the practice is illegal in Tanzania.[20] In the Tarime district of Mara, FGM typically occurs when a girl is between 10 and 16 years old to prepare her for early marriage, which, according to cultural tradition, is expected to occur within two years of the ritual.[21] Domestic violence is likewise destructive and prevalent. It is estimated that 72 percent of women ages 15-49 in Mara have experienced violence at the hands of a family member or partner.[22]According to researchers, “[t]he consequences on both physical and mental health are devastating as abused women are more exposed to mental disorders and adverse mental health consequences.”[23]
Once they reach puberty, girls’ engagement in school is likewise uniquely affected by menstruation, which brings with it the worry of soiling one’s clothes due to a lack of sanitary supplies and inadequate toilet facilities at schools. High rates of absenteeism often result.[24]
Taken together, these situations, circumstances, and tendencies evince the reality that the education of girls is not valued in many areas of Tanzania, including Tarime. Girls in the district have reported that boys’ education is a priority. One individual explained that “[p]arents say that when you educate a girl child, she will get married to another family; therefore, there is no advantage of educating women.” Another girl cited parents’ desire to keep daughters docile and unaware of their rights, including laws protecting them against child marriage and FGM, as a reason for keeping them out of school.[25]
In fact, girls’ education could improve the lives of thousands of men, women, and children across Tanzania. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said:
To educate girls is to reduce poverty… Study after study has taught us that there is no tool for development more effective than the education of girls. No other policy is as likely to raise economic productivity, lower infant and maternal mortality, improve nutrition and promote health — including the prevention of HIV/AIDS. No other policy is as powerful in increasing the chances of education for the next generation.
Indeed, studies conducted by the World Bank indicate that “increasing the share of women with secondary education by one percentage point can boost the annual per capita income growth by 0.3 percent on average,”[26] and that “every extra year of schooling beyond the average boosts girls’ eventual wages by 10-20 percent.”[27] The positive effects of her increased wages are likely to be felt community-wide given a woman’s propensity to put 90 percent of her income toward the care and wellbeing of her family.[28] For a low-income country like Tanzania, particularly the Tarime district, the case for improving girls’ access to and engagement in education couldn’t be clearer.

Kondoa Irangi Rock Paintings -Dodoma Tanzania.

Kondoa Rock-Art Sites

Kondoa Rock-Art Sites
On the eastern slopes of the Masai escarpment bordering the Great Rift Valley are natural rock shelters, overhanging slabs of sedimentary rocks fragmented by rift faults, whose vertical planes have been used for rock paintings for at least two millennia. The spectacular collection of images from over 150 shelters over 2,336 km2 , many with high artistic value, displays sequences that provide a unique testimony to the changing socio-economic base of the area from hunter-gatherer to agro-pastoralist, and the beliefs and ideas associated with the different societies. Some of the shelters are still considered to have ritual associations with the people who live nearby, reflecting their beliefs, rituals and cosmological traditions.
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Dodoma Region © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value
Brief synthesis
On the eastern slopes of the Masai escarpment bordering the Great Rift Valley are natural rock shelters, overhanging slabs of sedimentary rocks fragmented by rift faults, whose vertical planes have been used for rock paintings over at least two millennia.
The exact number of rock art sites in the Kondoa area is not yet known but it is estimated that there are between 150 and 450 decorated rock shelters, caves and overhanging cliff faces. The sites are located on the steep eastern slopes, an area of spectacular, fractured geological formations, which provided the necessary shelter for the display of paintings.
The extensive and dense collection of rock paintings represents and embodies the cultures of both hunter-gatherer and pastoralist communities who have lived in the area over several millennia.
The similarities with images from southern and central Africa, together with their distinctive streaky style and rare depiction of domesticated animals, make them distinctive examples of hunter-gatherer rock art at its northernmost limit.
In the spectacular collection of images from over 150 shelters, many have a high artistic value, and display sequences that provide a unique testimony to the changing socio-economic base of the area, from hunter-gatherer to agro-pastoralist societies, and the beliefs and ideas associated with them. Some of the shelters still have ritual associations with the peoples who live nearby, and are associated with the strong living traditions of the local population.
Criterion (iii): The rock art sites at Kondoa are an exceptional testimony to the lives of hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists who have lived in the area over several millennia, and reflect a unique variation of hunter-gatherer art from southern and central Africa and a unique form of agro-pastoralist paintings.
Criterion (vi): Some of the rock art sites are still used actively by local communities for a variety of ritual activities such as rainmaking, divining and healing. These strong intangible relationships between the paintings and living practices reinforce the links with those societies that created the paintings, and demonstrate a crucial cultural continuum.
The boundaries enclose the extent of the main rock art sites. The boundaries do not follow any recognisable feature on the ground, although they are marked with embedded concrete posts.
Most of the rock art sites are stable and relatively well preserved. Although the rock shelters with paintings are located on the slopes of the escarpment or on the plateau and are generally surrounded by a wooded or bushy environment, there are some threats due to village land use practices. In particular, village farming, cattle grazing and harvesting of forestry resources are encroaching on the areas surrounding the rock art sites.
The forested or wooded environment surrounding the rock art sites creates a desirable protective measure for the paintings as this minimizes the effects of the sun, wind and dusts.
The woodland areas around the rock art sites give vital protection to the rock art, and are essential to control soil erosion and retain ground water. Deforestation, through the seeking of building materials and fuel, could seriously damage the images. A large number of sites were illegally excavated before inscription with a loss of contextual material. 
One of the key qualities of the Kondoa rock art sites is that they still play an active role in the rituals of local communities. The sites are used for instance for weather-divination, healing and initiation.  Whereas it is essential to sustain the links with local communities, there is also a need to ensure that use and conservation do not conflict. For instance in some of the rain-making rituals, animal fat and beer are thrown over the rock art paintings, perhaps a recent adaptation of older practices.
The authenticity of Kondoa rock art is beyond question. It has never been restored or enhanced in any way. What is of special importance about Kondoa is that the rock art exists, largely in its original natural environment, and in the context of a rich living heritage. The places where ancient hunter-gatherers painted rock art perhaps to influence the weather are still used today by local farmer communities in modern rain-making ceremonies. Modern versions of boys’ initiation ceremonies, which a few centuries ago may have led to the creation of certain white paintings, are still held every year in most of the villages in the area. Descendents of the Maa-speaking pastoralists, who once perhaps painted at a number of rock art sites in the area, still visit the area to graze their cattle during periods of drought.
A recent rock painting made by a Sandawe speaking man illustrated a remarkable persistence of artistic tradition, perhaps extending over several millennia.
Protection and management requirements
The Kondoa rock art site was initially managed by the National Monuments preservation ordinance No. 4 of 1937. This was repealed and replaced by the Antiquities Act No 10 of 1964, with its amendment Act No. 22 of 1979. Twelve Kondoa rock painting sites were given a special status and level of protection when they were scheduled as National Monuments in 1949. These sites were re-listed in 1981 when the Government of Tanzania published a new gazette, notice No. 39 published on 27 March 1981 with seven other sites added to the list. The property was declared a Conservation Area in 2004.
A Conservation Plan, started in 2001, was completed and updated in 2005. A Property Management Plan and Statement of Objectives were prepared in 2004. Both of these need to be regularly updated.
The existence of rock paintings in the area was first reported in 1908 and, although a variety of excavations were carried out during the 20th century, the rock art area at Kondoa has never been comprehensively surveyed. The records from these past surveys and work are scattered over a variety of institutions in different countries. At present there is no integrated documentation system for the sites. The management plan notes this as a matter of serious concern and, in order to support the management and monitoring, there is a need for the Department of Antiquities to create a central database of all documentation.
The management of the property will need to create a careful path between supporting the living heritage values of the sites and supporting the physical preservation of the sites. Working together with the Kondoa forest authority, the village governments and communities have now identified areas where trees can be grown for firewood
You are welcome Tanzania where you can enjoy about tourism attractions

SMGEO Profile

01. Organization Details:

a)      Name of the Organization                       : Social Mainstreaming for Gender Equality Organization– (SMGEO).

b)      Address                                                    :  P.O. Box  6444
: MOROOGORO, Opposite Vijana Social Hall, Sabasaba CCM bulding
  Fax & Phone: +255 753 599 827.

 c)  Contact Person                                         : Mr Eric Samuel Kuhoga
                                                                          Charperson/Founder  of SMGEO
                                                                          Phone: +255 753 599 827  (Off), +255 717 720 676 (Res).
                                                                          Mobile +255 753 599 827
d) Legal Status of the Organization   :
i)        Registration Authority              :Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children                                                (MCDDGC)
ii)      Registration No                                    : 00NGO/00008106.
iii)    Date                                                     : 10.08.2015.
iv)    Registration Authority              : Non Government Organizations  Act .
: section 12(2) of Act no 24/2002

02. Background:        
Social Mainstreaming for Gender Equality Organization (SMGEO) is a Non Government Organization (National Level). It has bees established on 10th August, 2015 by United Republic of Tanzania under the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children(MCDGC) This is a National level Organization that have allowed to works its projects in Tanzania Mainland. A large and growing body of researches and gender projects has shown how gender inequality undermines health and development. To overcome gender inequality the United Nations Population Fund states that, “Women's empowerment and gender equality requires strategic interventions at all levels of programming and policy-making. These levels include reproductive health, economic empowerment, educational empowerment and political empowerment.

We, the undersigned of the present Constitution believe that gender discrimination and imbalance are the challenges that jeopardize the stability and wellbeing of the society in present and future generation, thus SMGEO as Non-Profit Organization are engaging to restore and promote equal integration of both male and female as well as disadvantages groups in the development projects for community benefit.

SMGEO was formed according to the willingness of the community people in a view to deal with the present socio-economic problems in different areas in Tanzania Mainland  by means of good understanding and sharing the problems each other and to find out the best way of solving the problems through free discussion in different projects  and people participation in the decision making and get-together under an umbrella of SMGEO Organization.

03. Year of Establishment: - SMGEO established in 2015.

04. Project ActivitiesThe SMGEO activities started from January, 2015.

05. Vision, Mission and Goal:

5.1. Vision:
A society that upholds gender equality, dignity, respect and fairness for all in order to meet socio-economic development.

5.2: Mission Statement:
Effectively and efficiently to promote gender equality and freedom from discrimination and segregation of all persons (male and female) in the society in general.

5.3: Goal:
To increase engagement of grassroots women and other marginalized groups with gender transformation and social justice issues informed by the transformative feminist agenda.

      6. Local Contract Point:
SMGEO Central Office :  CCM MAFIGA WARD, under  Dira Cultural Group Office,
Morogoro Town, Western Sabasaba Ground in Morogoro Municipality

   7.Statement of Believe

The Organization affirms hereafter that:
Equality for male and female as well as disadvantaged groups in whole process of development in the society. Meaning to say “Without Gender equality no development”,
     i.            Achievement of equality in the society needs facilitation and awareness majority on real means of gender and it’s aspects in the society
   ii.            Cultural norms and practices that mostly practiced in our society should be looked in order to analyze tradition practices that bar equal participation in whole process of development,

8.Branch Office-Currently SMGEO Has no branches .

9. Objectives of the Organization:

By virtue of the Organization’s purpose and statement of belief set forth herein, the Organization’s objectives shall be:
                                i.            To raise  awareness, understanding and knowledge on health  on various diseases including HIV/AIDS  and other STD’s  as well as other diseases affecting Tanzanians people in general in their respectively areas.
                              ii.            Preservation of environment from destructions and the use of other sources like biogas for domestic activities.
                            iii.            To conduct demonstration to address various matters pertaining in the society like gender violence’s
                            iv.            To make socio-economic researches and analysis for community development benefit.
                              v.            To promote Good Agricultural Practices (GAP’s) in all types of agriculture.
                            vi.            To create programmes of facilitating and evaluation of Gender Based Violence to the community
                          vii.            Establishment of social services centers like schools, hospitals and orphan’s centers to meet Tanzania Development Vision  2025 as well as International Development Vision
                        viii.            To create and establish theatre/ Artisans group that shall promote gender equality, dignity and influence socio- economic development in the community.

10. Purpose of Organization

The purpose of this Organization shall be:
        i.            To provide teachings and information that promotes equal integration of both male and female as well as disadvantaged groups including Blind, Cripple, Albinisms, and Deaf in the whole process of development.
      ii.            To help society & individuals willing to make equal opportunity in ownership, access and control.
    iii.            To create employment through projects established by Organization including agricultural and entrepreneurial activities established by organization.
    iv.            To propagate notions that promotes gender relation in the community.
      v.            To provide facts that reveal actual situation of gender issues on the society and it\s impact to the society
    vi.            To promote sustainable use of environments through a forestation and re-afforestation program by integration for both male and female in the community.
  vii.            To create harmony and sense of belongingness for both in the community.
viii.            To restore the image of gender and it’s perception in the society.
    ix.            To promote gender awareness in the society within the society.
      x.            To provide necessary knowledge on the issues of facts on Gender matters within the society.