Wednesday, 18 May 2016

20 Poorest Countries In The World

20 Poorest Countries In The World

What are the poorest countries in the world? The rankings below were published in Wikipedia from International Monetary Fund’s 2011 gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita) report and reflecting the countries with the lowest purchasing power parity (PPP). Since 1970, there has been encouraging news emerging from developing countries. According to the UN’s 2010 Human Development Report, life expectancy in developing countries has increased from 59 years in 1970 to 70 years in 2010. School enrolment climbed from 55% to 70% of all primary and secondary school-age children. Also, in the last forty years, per capita GDP doubled to more than ten thousand U.S. dollars. Poor countries are catching up with the wealthier countries, but not all countries are making fast progress. For example, some countries in Sub-Sahara Africa have little or no progress, largely due to the HIV epidemic and civil wars.
The 20 Poorest Countries:

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#1. Democratic Republic of the Congo

GDP Per Capita: $348 (As of 2011)
Not to be mixed with the neighbouring Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has become the poorest country in the world as of 2010. Democratic Republic of the Congo was known as Zaire until 1997. Congo is the largest country in the world that has French as an official language – the population of D.R Congo is about six million larger than the population of France (71 million people in D.R Congo vs 65 million in France). The Second Congo War beginning in 1998 has devastated the country. The war that involves at least 7 foreign armies is the deadliest conflict in the world since World War II – by 2008 the Second Congo War and its aftermath had killed 5.4 million people.

#2. Liberia

Liberia Appears Calm Before Landmark Presidential Elections
GDP Per Capita: $456 (As of 2011)
Liberia is one of the few countries in Africa that have not been colonized by Europe. Instead, Liberia was founded and colonized by freed slaves from America. These slaves made up the elite of the country and they established a government that closely resembled that of the United States of America. In 1980 the president of Liberia was overthrown and a period of instability and civil war followed. After the killings of hundreds of thousands, a 2003 peace deal was led to democratic elections in 2005. Today, Liberia is recovering from the lingering effects of the civil war and related economic dislocation, with about 85% of the population lives below $1 a day.

#3. Zimbabwe

An illegal diamond dealer from Zimbabwe displays diamonds for sale in Manica
GDP Per Capita: $487 (As of 2011)
The government of Zimbabwe released its largest bank note 100 trillion dollar bill issued on January 2009. In addition to the economic problems the life expectancy of Zimbabwe is the lowest in the world – 37 years for men and just 34 for women. One of the problems for the early deaths are the 20.1% of the population with HIV and AIDS. The health issues aren’t seeing any improvement.

#4. Burundi

GDP Per Capita: $615 (As of 2011)
Burundi is known for its tribal and civil wars.  Burundi have never really had any peaceful time between the everlasting civil wars as a result its the fourth poorest country. Owing in part to its landlocked geography, poor legal system, lack of economic freedom, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV and AIDS.  Approximately 80% of Burundians live in poverty and according to the World Food Programme 57% of children under 5 years suffer from chronic malnutrition; 93% of Burundi’s exports revenues come from selling coffee.

#5. Eritrea

GDP Per Capita: $735 (As of 2011)
Affected by the Italian colonizers of the 19th century.  Eritrea’s advantage of controlling the sea route through the Suez Canal made the italians to colonized it just a year after the opening of the canal in 1869 and same reason the British conquered it in 1941.  The present Eritrea’s economic conditions have not improved and real gross domestic product growth averaged 1.2 percent between 2005 and 2008; in 2009 GDP growth was estimated at 2.0 percent.

#6. Central African Republic

Central African Republic
GDP Per Capita: $768 (As of 2011)
Despite its significant mineral resources; uranium reserves in Bakouma, crude oil, gold, diamonds, lumber, hydropower  and its arable land, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world.  Diamonds constitute the most important export of the Central Africans Republic, accounting for 40–55% of export revenues. The 2010 UNDP Human Development Report ranks CAR near the bottom of its Human Development Index (159th out of 162 countries) and unlikely to meet its MDG goals. The proportion of Central Africans living on $1 a day has decreased slightly to 62%  but it needs to be half of that in order to reach the 2015 goal.

#7. Niger

GDP Per Capita: $771 (As of 2011)
With over 80% of its land is covered by the giant desert of Sahara, Niger has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Parity Purchasing Power (PPP) terms of US$771 as of 2011, one of the lowest in Africa. Niger’s poverty is exacerbated by political instability, extreme vulnerability to exogenous shocks and inequality which affects girls, women and children disproportionately. In January 2000, Niger’s newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems including a virtually empty treasury and was qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries.

#8. Sierra Leone

GDP Per Capita: $849 (As of 2011)
A West African country with English as its official language, Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base and home to the third largest natural harbour in the world where shipping from all over the globe berth at Freetown’s famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay.  It is among the top diamond producing nations in the world, and mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner and also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, and a major producer of gold. Despite this natural wealth, 70% of its people live in poverty. If you have seen the movie Blood Diamond you should know that it is based on Sierra Leone.

#9. Malawi

GDP Per Capita: $860 (As of 2011)
Malawi has one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, with 53% (2004) living under the poverty line. In December 2000, the IMF stopped aid disbursements due to corruption concerns, and many individual donors followed suit, resulting in an almost 80% drop in Malawi’s development budget. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. In December 2007, the US granted Malawi eligibility status to receive financial support within the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) initiative. Agriculture accounts for 35% of GDP, industry for 19% and services for the remaining 46%.  In addition, some setbacks have been experienced, and Malawi has lost some of its ability to pay for imports due to a general shortage of foreign exchange, as investment fell 23% in 2009.

#10. Togo

GDP Per Capita: $899 (As of 2011)
This small, sub-Saharan economy suffers from anemic economic growth and depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world’s largest producers of phosphate. Approximately one half of the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.

#11. Madagascar

GDP Per Capita: $934 (As of 2011)
Madagascar’s mainstay of growth are tourism, agriculture and the extractive industries. Approximately 69% of the population lives below the national poverty line threshold of one dollar per day. The agriculture sector constituted 29% of Malagasy GDP in 2011, while manufacturing formed 15% of GDP. Tourism dropped more than 50% in 2009 compared with the previous year, and many investors are wary of entering the uncertain investment environment.

#12. Afghanistan

GDP Per Capita: $956 (As of 2011)
Afghanistan is probably the only poorest country in the world that doesn’t need any introduction. Due to the decades of war and nearly complete lack of foreign investment, the nation’sGDP per capita stands at $956. Its unemployment rate is 35% and 42 % of the population live on less than $1 a day.  As tribal warfare and internecine feuding has been one of their chief occupations since time immemorial. History has never seen Afghanistan lose a war. They might be one of the poorest but they know how to fight. Instead of a traditional army they simply resist with small counter attacks that eventually tire out the enemy.

#13. Guinea

GDP Per Capita: $1,083 (As of 2011)
Guinea also has diamonds, gold, and other metals. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Bauxite and alumina are currently the only major exports. Guinea’s poorly developed infrastructure and rampant corruption continue to present obstacles to large-scale investment projects. Agriculture employs 80% of the nation’s labor force. Under French rule, and at the beginning of independence, Guinea was a major exporter of bananas, pineapples, coffee, peanuts, and palm oil. From independence until the presidential election of 2010, Guinea was governed by a number of autocratic rulers, which has contributed to making Guinea one of the poorest countries in the world.

#14. Mozambique

GDP Per Capita: $1,085 (As of 2011)
One of the poorest and most underdeveloped country in the world, 75% of the population engages in small-scale agriculture, which still suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. The minimum legal salary is around US$60 per month.

#15. Ethiopia

GDP Per Capita: $ 1,093 (As of 2011)
Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation.  In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 55% of the population lives in slums. Despite its fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. Ethiopia’s economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for 41% of GDP and 85% of total employment. Agricultural productivity remains low, the sector suffers from poor cultivation practices and frequent drought.

#16. Mali

GDP Per Capita: $1,128 (As of 2011)
With 50% of the population living below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day, Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.  Some of its natural resources are gold, uranium, livestock, and salt. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment.

#17. Guinea-Bissau

GDP Per Capita: $1,144 (As of 2011)
Guinea-Bissau’s legal economy depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking in narcotics is probably the most lucrative trade. With 60% of the population living below the poverty line, drug traffickers based in Latin America use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine. The government and the military did almost nothing to stop this business.

#18. Comoros

GDP Per Capita: $ 1,232 (As of 2011)
Made up of three islands with rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. As of 2008 about 50% of the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day, due to numerous coups d’etat since independence in 1975.

#19. Haiti

GDP Per Capita: $1,235 (As of 2011)
Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, and poor access to education for much of the population are among Haiti’s most serious disadvantages. Haiti’s economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighbouring areas. Already the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake inflicted $7.8 billion in damages.  Seven out of ten Haitians live on less than US$2 a day, according to the International Red Cross.

#20. Uganda

GDP Per Capita: $1,317 (As of 2011)
Uganda is one of the poorest nations in the world, with 37.7 percent of the population living on less than $1.25 a day. Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Despite making enormous progress in reducing the countrywide poverty incidence from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 31 per cent in 2005, poverty remains deep-rooted in the country’s rural areas, which are home to more than 85 per cent of Ugandans.
[Source: Wikipedia/International Monetary Fund]

25 Most Dirtiest Cities In The World

Updated on October 22, 2011

No. 25: Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 46.8

Problems with waste disposal continue to contaminate the rivers of Nigeria, especially affecting residents in Port Harcourt. The area lacks strategies for preventing oil spills and contamination, and the clean-up methods after disasters require significant improvement.

No. 24: New Delhi, India

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 46.6

You'll find just about everything except marine life in New Delhi's Yamuna River. Garbage and sewage flow freely, creating a rich environment for the growth of water-borne diseases contributing to extremely high rates of infant morbidity.

No. 23: Maputo, Mozambique

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 46.3

Located on the Indian Ocean, the Eastern African country of Mozambique suffers from lack of sanitation processes--specific ally the lack of a solid waste removal system as well as sewage treatment. The capital city of Maputo feels the worst of these consequences. Piles of garbage line the streets, and the sewage in the river is visibly thick.

No. 22: Luanda, Angola

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 45.2

Located on Angola's coast with the Atlantic Ocean to its west, Luanda is the city's largest port. Studies from several agencies, including UNICEF and Oxfam, suggest that a large portion of the population in Luanda drink water of poor and in some cases dangerous quality. Much of this portion of the population lives in settlements called musseques built on hardened waste. Water arrives to these settlements in private tanks, which consistently show concerning levels of chlorine. Water conditions such as this only served to intensify a cholera epidemic in 2006.

No. 21: Niamey, Niger

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 45

The Niger River Basin, home to Niger's capital city, Niamey, is a cesspool of pollution and waste. In a country with a total population just under 14 million, the healthy life expectancy at birth is 35 for males and 36 for females, thanks in part to poor sanitation and drinkable water. About one in four children raised here will die before age 5, the World Health Organization says.

No. 20: Nouakchott, Mauritania

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 44.7

Located in northern Africa, Mauritania sits on the North Atlantic Ocean between Senegal and the western Sahara. Nouakchott, the country's capital, is located on the western coast. Due to the desert-like climate, droughts and water management are critical issues for the country. Oil deposits off the coast and iron ore serve as the country's main industrial opportunities, but the majority of the population depends on farming.

No. 19: Conakry, Guinea Republic

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 44.2

Life expectancy, infant morbidity, and the percentage of the population that has access to safe water are shockingly low for Conakry, the capital city of Guinea Republic. Previous World Bank initiatives in Conakry focused on water supply and sanitation have not proved very successful.

No. 18: Lome, Togo

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 44.1

Lomé, the capital city of Togo, sits in the southwest near the country's border with Ghana. Water and waste management has become one of the country's main problems as a large percentage of the population continues to live without access to improved water or sanitation. Extensive flooding in Togo only magnifies the problem.

No. 17: Pointe Noire, Congo

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 43.8

The second Congolese city on the list suffers from many of the same pollutants as its neighboring city, Brazzaville- -air pollution from vehicle emissions and unbridled water contamination from the mass unloading of raw sewage in the city's water supply. According to the CIA WorldFactBook, about 70% of the Congolese population live either in Brazzaville or Pointe Noire or along the railroad track, which connects the two.

No. 16: Bamako, Mali

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 43.7

Bamako, the capital of Mali, and the country's largest city is situated on the Niger River. Rapid population growth, coupled with unbridled urban pollution, are among the many health and sanitation challenges facing the capital. Several droughts have caused migration from rural areas to the urban environment of the capital, which has only led to more water management issues.

No. 15: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 43.4

A recent World Bank study shows that cancer and respiratory disease rates are up due to increased air pollution in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Increased levels of benzene, from motorbike petrol, and increased dust particles, amounting on average to nearly three times the WHO-stated healthy limit, contribute to these rising numbers. In a city characterized by a rainy season, waste management and sanitation also face challenges.

No. 14: Moscow, Russia

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 43.2

In a city where you can pay $3,000 a month for an apartment that doesn't even have clean running water, Moscow also has troubling levels of air pollution, which present a daily strain on lung health.

No. 13: Bangui, Central African Republic

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 42.1

Bangui, the capital of Central African Republic, faces water and sanitation challenges similar to its neighboring countries' capitals. A rapidly increasing population, coupled with a lack of adequate waste and water management, places stresses on the capital city.

No. 12: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 40.4

The capital of this east African country continues to grow populationwise, putting a stress on the city's sanitation programs. Solid waste, entering the Msimbazi River, contributes to widely spread infectious diseases among the population..

No. 11: Ndjamena, Chad

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 39.7

Ndjamena, the capital city of Chad, faces multi-faceted water management challenges. A main site for concern here is the Conventional Basin of Lake Chad, upon which the country's main fisheries greatly depend. Also noteworthy-- the continual influx of population growth, accelerated by the migration of neighboring Sudanese refugees from Darfur, which places an unexpected strain on water management.

No. 10: Brazzaville, Congo

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 39.1

Air pollution from emissions, lack of potable water and the contamination of the city's water from raw sewage contribute to the laundry list of health and sanitation concerns for Brazzaville, the capital of Congo. Each of these press upon the life expectancy of the local population.

No. 9: Almaty, Kazakhstan

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 39.1

The marriage of petroleum-based industry and insufficient safeguards against pollution sets the stage for an environmental crisis in this city. Toxic waste dumps require a huge price tag for improvement and an even larger price for neglect.

No. 8: Baghdad, Iraq

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 39

Poor water quality in Baghdad threatens to exacerbate the the transmission of water-borne diseases in the city. Fatal outbreaks of cholera struck several provinces of the country, including Baghdad from August 2007 to December 2007. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) also says air pollution, resulting from burning oil and aggravated by war, is cause for concern.

No. 7: Mumbai, India

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 38.2

India's government hopes to transform Mumbai back into a burgeoning metropolis after recent economic decline. A recent private-sector report, Vision Mumbai, proposed changes in infrastructure, pollution control and economic growth strategy, which contributed to the seeking of approximately $1 billion of aid from Indian government.

No. 6: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 37.9

Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, faces one of the worst sanitation problems on both the continent of Africa as well as in the world. The lack of adequate sanitation programs results in infant mortality, low life expectancy and the transmission of water-borne diseases.

No. 5: Mexico City, Mexico

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 37.7

Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, and the capital of North American air pollution, estimates unhealthy ozone emissions nearly 85% of the year. Mexico's geographical location--in the center of a volcanic crater and surrounded by mountains--only serves to lock in the air pollution, causing smog to sit above the city.

No. 4: Port au Prince, Haiti

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 34

The country's politically inspired violence and corruption are well documented. Equally dangerous: its air and water. Serving as one of the main ports on the island of Hispaniola, Port au Prince is central to Haiti's economic development. A lack of pollution controls, however, contributes to the widespread environmental problems confronting the Haitian city.

No. 3: Antananarivo, Madagascar

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 30.1

Madagascar, located off of the southeastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean, makes this year's list with its capital city, Antananarivo. Well known for its variety of unique flora and fauna, Madagascar has often been referred to as the world's eighth continent, but the effects of the human population are quickly leaving their footprint.

No. 2: Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 29.6

Located in southern Asia, between Burma and India, Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh battles with the constant threat of water pollution. Surface water is often thick with disease and pollutants from the use of commercial pesticides. With an estimated 150 million people living in a relatively small area, cleaning up the problem won't be easy.

No. 1: Baku, Azerbaijan

Mercer Health and Sanitation Index Score: 27.6

Surrounded by Iran, Georgia, Russia and Armenia on the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan has long been an oil hub. As a consequence, Baku, the capital, suffers from life-threatening levels of air pollution emitted from oil drilling and shipping.
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