Tuesday, 31 May 2016

Its me and you who can make this Campaign Against Violence's !!

The intense campaigns against domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment, and inequity in the schools all too often depend on an image of women as weak and victimized.
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SMGEO
P.O.BOX 6444 
Morogoro,Tanzania
Mobile : +255 753 599 827
East Africa
Email: smgeo2015@gmail.com




FGM

Female genital mutilation targets little girls, baby girls - fragile angels who are helpless, who cannot fight back. It's a crime against a child, a crime against humanity. It's abuse. It's absolutely criminal and we have to stop it. 

Because women and girls are not valued equally as human beings, they are treated as less than such. Female genital mutilation is one example of this that has to be stopped.


Sexual Harassment


Sexual Harassment in Tanzania, Sexual Harassment and the Law in Tanzania, Sexual Harassment and Complaints, Sexual Harassment and Discrimination on Mywage Tanzania.
What does the law say about Sexual Harassment?
The law prohibits any form of sexual harassment in the workplace as well as any other environment. The Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004 has termed sexual harassment a form of discrimination, prohibited it and provided for a penalty of fine not exceeding five million shillings.
The Code of Ethics and Conduct for Public Service is very clear and detailed on the areas of sexual harassment and what constitutes sexual harassment in employment. It states:
  • A public servant shall refrain from having sexual relationships at the workplace. Likewise he/she will avoid all types of conduct which may constitute sexual harassment which include: 
i) Pressure for sexual activity or sexual favors with a fellow employee. 
ii) Rape, sexual battery and molestation or any sexual assault.
iii) Intentional physical conduct which is sexual in nature such as unwelcome touching, pinching, patting, grabbing and or brushing against another employee’s body, hair or clothes.
iv) Sexual innuendos, gestures, noises, jokes, comments or remarks to another person about one’s sex or body.
v) Offering or receiving preferential treatment, promises or rewards and offering or submitting to sexual favours.
Is there any other legislation in Tanzania that deals with Sexual Harassment?
The Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, 1998 has also criminalised sexual harassment and the following are termed as kind of behaviours amounting to sexual harassment: causing sexual annoyance to a person, uttering any word, making any sound or gesture, or exhibiting any object, including any organ whether male or female intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that the gesture shall be seen by a woman.
Are there any measures imposed by the law to employers to eliminate Sexual Harassment at the place of work?
The law requires every employer to strive to eliminate sexual harassment/ discrimination in any employment policy. The law has gone to the extent of wanting the employer to register a plan to eliminate discrimination at the work place with the Labour Commissioner.
How can I file a complaint of Sexual Harassment?
Sexual harassment is treated as a grievance and for organisations which have a Grievance Procedures Manual, you will be required to follow the procedure outlined therein. The common procedure outlined under the law is for the complainant/you to lodge a complaint in writing to your manager or supervisor. That manager will call the complainant and the suspect and if need be, their representatives, and resolve the matter. If that same manager/supervisor is the suspect then manager higher in rank shall be summonsed.
The grievance will then be handled internally and if any party is not comfortable with the outcome of the grievance or the way it was handled the law allows this person to lodge an appeal to the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration. At the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration the dispute will pass first through the stage of mediation; if mediation fails then it will be reffered to arbitration for a decision. If it succeeds then the matter ends there and the parties return to their normal duties.
For organisations which do not have an internal grievance procedure, the complaint can be lodged straight at the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration as a dispute.

Monday, 30 May 2016

Faida tele wanaume kufua, kwenda kliniki

KUONA baba akiwa ameandamana na mkewe kliniki, kuona baba akifua au kupika huku mama akifanya shughuli nyingine, inaelezwa kwamba ilikuwa ni mwiko katika jamii ya Wafipa, mkoani Rukwa.
Hali hiyo ya mwanamke kufanya kila shughuli haikuwa miongoni mwa watu wa vijijini pekee, bali hata ‘wasomi’ kama walimu, madaktari, waratibu wa elimu na wengine kama hao. Kundi la waandishi wa habari waliotembelea katika maeneo ambayo Mradi wa Ushiriki Sawa wa Wanaume katika Afya ya Uzazi na Ujinsia (TMEP), ulikuwa unafanyika kwa kipindi cha takribani miaka mitano, waligundua mabadiliko chanya yaliyoletwa na mradi huo.
Hata hivyo, mradi huo ulikoma mwishoni mwa mwaka jana, lakini mafunzo yaliyopatikana yanapaswa kuendelezwa. Uso kwa uso mwanamume akifua Waandishi wakiwa katika kijiji cha Nkana, kata ya Sintai wilayani Nkasi, mkoani humo, walimkuta Petro Evodi Pahali akifua nguo zake na za mkewe, huku mkewe huyo akiendelea na shughuli zingine za kutayarisha chakula cha familia.
Alipohojiwa akiwa uani mwa nyumba yao ya matofali ya kuchoma, Pahali ambaye mwaka huu amefikisha umri wa miaka 31, alisema tangu ashiriki mafunzo yaliyokuwa yanatolewa na mradi wa TMEP yamemhamasisha kubadilika na sasa anafua nguo zake mwenyewe na za mkewe na wakati mwingine kusaidia shughuli za nyumbani kama vile kupika na usafi wa nyumba kadri anavyopata nafasi.
“Kabla ya hapo kwa kweli nilikuwa siwezi kufua hata kama sina kazi. Hii ilikuwa ni shughuli ya mke wangu. Lakini siku hizi ninafua na wakati mwingine mtoto akiumwa nampeleka mwenyewe zahanati,” anasema Pahali ambaye ni mkulima na Katekista katika kijiji hicho, yaani mwalimu wa dini. Pahali, baba wa watoto wawili, anasema kwa vile mkewe kwa sasa ni mjamzito, yeye ameamua kumsaidia majukumu kadhaa ikiwa ni pamoja na kufua.
“Lingine ninalolifanya ni kwamba kila akienda kliniki lazima tuandamane pamoja. Hii ni tofauti na zamani ambapo wakati wa ujauzito wa watoto wangu hawa wawili na hadi kuzaliwa kwao sikuwahi kuandamana na mke wangu hospitali. Kwa kweli sasa ndio ninagundua kwamba ule utaratibu wetu wa zamani... mnaita mfumo dume eh... ulikuwa ni utesaji,” anasema.
Pahali anakiri kwamba mila zao za Kifipa hazikuruhusu mwanamume kufanya shughuli zilizoonekana kama za kike kama kupika, kufua na masuala ya kulea watoto ikiwa ni pamoja na kuwapeleka kliniki. Anasema tangu elimu ya ushiriki sawa wa wanaume katika haki ya uzazi na ujinsia ifike kijijini hapo, wanaume wengi wamebadilika na ni wachache wanaoendelea kumuona mwanamume anayefanya kile kilichozoeleka zamani kwamba ni kazi za kike kama mtu aliyetawaliwa na mkewe.
Lakini kubwa anasema tangu aanze kumsaidia mkewe shughuli mbalimbali, mapenzi motomoto yameongezeka sana baina yake na mkewe. Mkewe, Regina Papala, anakiri kwamba zamani mumewe alikuwa hamsaidii kazi za nyumbani hata kama anaumwa au ana ujauzito wa kujifungua, labda ikibidi ataita dada zake kumsaidia lakini si yeye kuzifanya kama vile kuingia jikoni kupika kama ilivyo siku hizi.
“Alivyoanza kwenda huko kwenye huo mradi, hata sijui unaitwaje, ndipo akawa anabadilika taratibu. Ninashukuru kweli siku hizi ananisaidia na hasa hivi nilivyo mjamzito,” anasema. Hata hivyo, Regina aliyezaliwa mwaka 1988 anakiri kwamba baadhi ya wifi zake wanaona kama sasa anamtawala mumewe. “Kuna wengine wakiona ananisaidia kazi za nyumbani wananiuliza, ‘kwa nini mumeo anafua, anapika wakati wewe upo?’
Mimi ninawaambia ‘ndwile’ (ninaumwa),” anasema na kuongeza kwamba huwa anaamua kusema hivyo ili kupunguza maswali. Maofisa tiba kubadilika Waandishi pia walipotembelea katika Kituo cha Afya cha Kirando, wilayani Nkasi ambapo, pamoja na kufanya mahojiano na Mganga Mfawidhi wa kituo hicho, Dk William Msinjili, walitembelea eneo la kliniki pia, walikuta wanawake wengi wakiwa wameandamana na waume zao.
Dk Msinjili ambaye pamoja na maofisa kadhaa wa tiba wa kituo hicho walipata mafunzo kuhusu ushiriki sawa wa wanaume katika afya ya uzazi na ujinsia kupitia mradi wa TMEP anasema mradi uliwasaidia sana kupata mbinu za kuwahamasisha wanaume kuandamana na wake zao kuja kliniki. Dk Msinjili anashukuru mradi wa TMEP kuja na mtazamo tofauti ambao umesaidia kwa kiwango kikubwa kubadilisha mitazamo ya maofisa tiba na wananchi kwa ujumla.
“Jamii na hata sisi madaktari, zamani tuliona kwamba, kwa kuwa mwanamke ndiye anayezaa, basi kila kitu tulikuwa tukimwambia au kumfundisha yeye kama mlengwa, kumbe tulikuwa tunakosea. Tulisahu kwamba katika jamii yetu yenye mfumo dume, na hasa huku Ufipani, baba ndiye mtoa maamuzi na hivyo akielewa yaye basi mambo mengi yanakwenda kama tunavyotarajia,” anasema.
Anasema huko nyuma kabla ya mradi, ilikuwa inatokea mama mjamzito anagundulika kuwa ana matatizo au anatakiwa kujifungua katika uangalizi mzuri zaidi na ikiwezekana kupelekwa katika hospitali kubwa, lakini kwa vile baba hahusishwi katika kupata taarifa hizo kutoka kwa daktari aliweza kupuuza. Anasema kupuuza huku wakati mwingine kulisababisha madhara makubwa kwa akinamama wajawazito ikiwa ni pamoja na vifo.
“Yaani ilikuwa shida, baba anakataa hata kununua baby shawl (nguo nzito maalumu ya kubeba mtoto),” anasema na kuongeza kwamba baada ya elimu kusambaa tatizo kama hilo limepungua sana. Anasema kwa vile wanaume sasa wanahamasishwa kuja kliniki na wao ndio wanamiliki uchumi katika familia nyingi, wanalazimika pia kutafuta usafiri kama wa baiskeli au pikipiki.
“Zamani unakuta mwanamke ni mjamzito lakini anakuja kliniki kwa mguu, wakati mwingine kutoka kijiji cha mbali sana na mumewe hajali. Lakini kwa kuwa sasa hivi wamehamasika kuja pamoja, unakuta wanaume hawa mara nyingi wanaandaa pia usafiri hususan kuwaleta wake zao wajawazito kwa baiskeli,” anasema.
Ingawa alisema hakuwa na takwimu sahihi wakati waandishi walipomtembelea ofisini kwake, Dk Msinjili alisema vifo vya akinamama wajawazito na watoto vimepungua sana katika kituo hicho na yeye anaamini hali hiyo imeachangiwa kwa kiasi kikubwa na mradi wa TMEP.
“Sikuandaa takwimu lakini mkija siku nyingine mtazikuta... Vifo vya akina mama na watoto kwa kisi kikubwa vimepungua,” alisema. Uso kwa uso na wanaume kliniki Waandishi walipotembelea eneo la kliniki ya wazazi kituoni hapo, walikuta wanaume kadhaa wakiwa wameandamana na wake zao na baadhi walikuwa wakishiriki vipimo mbalimbali sambamba na wake zao.
Miongoni mwa wanandoa waliozungumza na waandishi wa habari kituoni hapo ni pamoja na Venance Mabuta aliyekuwa na mkewe, Amina Saidi na Athanas Kauzeni aliyekuwa ameandamana na mkewe mjamzito, Christina Kasangala. Wote walikiri kwamba zamani haikuwa rahisi mwanamume ‘kuacha shughuli zake’ na kwenda kliniki kwa kuwa waliamini hilo ni jukumu la mwanamke ambaye ndiye anabeba mimba na kisha kujifungua.
Akizungumza na waandishi wa habari, Athanas Kauzeni alikiri kwamba mfumo wa sasa wanaume kuandamana na wake zao katika kituo cha afya ni mzuri kuliko zamani wanawake walipokuwa wakienda peke yao. Anasema kupitia mfumo huo, yeye na mkewe hukaa na maofisa wa tiba na kujua kwa pamoja kama kuna tatizo lolote ili kulikabili pamoja na kujua ni nini waandae kabla ya mtoto kuzaliwa. “Kwa mfano, mke wangu hatakiwi kufanya kazi nzito.
Kama hili angeliambiwa peke yake huku mimi nikiwa sipo, ningedhani anataka tu kulala kwa kusingizia ujauzito lakini hapa ninapoambiwa na wataalamu basi ninajua ni kweli, si ujanja ujanja wake,” anasema. Katika kliniki hiyo ya mama, baba na mtoto katika kituo cha afya cha Kirando waandishi walizungumza pia na mmoja wa akinamama ambaye hakuwa ameandamana na mumewe.
Huyu ni Grace Ngoloka aliyekuwa na watoto wawili akisema kwamba mumewe hajahamasika vya kutosha kumsindikiza yeye na watoto kliniki kama ilivyo kwa wengine. “Mume wangu ni mkulima lakini tofauti na wengine haoni kama anapaswa kunisaidia kuja kliniki na hawa watoto wawili,” alisema.
Kituo cha Afya Kirando kilianza kazi mwaka 1974 kama zahanati na siku hizi kinahudumia maeneo mengi ya wilaya ya Nkasi kama Kabwe, Kolongwe, Namasi, Kaluya, Kisambala na hata wakati mwingine Wampembe. Hali kama hiyo ya wanaume kusindikiza wake zao kliniki au kupeleka watoto kliniki bila wake zao ilionekana pia katika Kituo cha Afya cha Matai wilayani Kalambo.
Mganga Mfawidhi wa kituo hicho ambacho wakati waandishi wanatembelea kilikuwa mbioni kuwa Hospitali ya wilaya ya Kalambo, Richard Mafunda, alisema kwa sasa kuna ongezeko kubwa la akina baba kuandamana na wake zao hospitalini kuliko zamani kabla mradi wa TMEP haujawafumbua macho wanavijiji. Anasema mwaka jana walifikia asilimia 100 ya wanaume kuandamana na wake zao kliniki tofauti na zamani ambapo ilikuwa asilimia chini ya tano.
“Pamoja na elimu, lingine linalohamasisha wanaume kusindikiza wake zao kliniki ni kwamba kila mama anayekuja na mumewe, anapewa kipaumbele cha kuhudumiwa kwanza kulinganisha na wale wanaokuja bila waume zao. Mmoja wa wanaume aliyekuwa ameandamana na mkewe katika kituo hicho cha afya cha Matai ni Leonard Kasanda na mkewe, Huruma Masumbuko.
Kasanda alisema pamoja na kuelimika kwamba ni muhimu kusindikizana na mkewe mjamzito kliniki, lakini anashukuru utaratibu wa zahanati hiyo wa mwanamke anayeandamana na mkewe kupewa kipaumbele cha kutibiwa kwanza. Mradi wa Ushiriki sawa wa Wanaume katika Haki ya Afya ya Uzazi na Ujinsia (TMEP) ulikuwa unafadhiliwa na Taasisi ya Elimu ya Afya na Ujinsia ya Sweden (RFSU) na kuendeshwa katika mikoa ya Rukwa na Singida.
Mradi huo sasa umekoma na kuacha maswali baada ya kuleta mafanikio makubwa. Mradi huo umekuwa ukimlenga mwanamume kama chanzo cha mabadiliko katika jamii ambapo unaamini kwamba, yeye kama mtoa maamuzi katika jamii nyingi akielimika basi suala la afya ya uzazi linakuwa jepesi. Je, nani ataendeleza elimu hii katika mikoa mingine ili kuwazindua wanaume washiriki sawa na wake zao katika kila jambo?
Na je, Rukwa na Singida waliopata elimu kupitia mradi huu wataendeleza waliojifunza? unatarajiwa kufikia ukomo mwishoni mwa mwaka huu na kwa sasa umekabidhiwa kwa wananchi na halmashauri za miji na wilaya mkoani Rukwa ili uwe endelevu.

Afya ya Uzazi-Uvaaji wa Chupi




Na Mdau Joyce Masika

Leo naomba nikukumbushe somo la Afya ya uzazi. Somo hili litafafanua faida na hasara au madhara yatokanayo na uvaaji wa nguo za ndani hasa Chupi.
Uvaaji wa chupi kihistoria ulianza karne ya 19 baada ya uvumbuzi wa viwanda na mapinduzi yake yaliyoambatana na mapinduzi ya teknolojia.
Enzi za mama zetu na babu zetu uvaaji wa chupi haukuwepo hapa Tanzania. Uvaaji wa chupi uliletwa na wamisionari na wakoloni wakati wanaleta dini Africa. Kabla ya hapo waafrica hatukuwa na utamaduni wa KUVAA chupi.
Mtoto akizaliwa hakuvalishwa chupi kamwe kama ilivyo Leo.
Mwanamke pia enzi hizo alikuwa havai chupi. Mwanaume naye pia alikuwa havai chupi? Watu wote walikuwa hawavai chupi. Mwanamke alikuwa hachuchumai chini pindi akijisaidia kutokana na kwamba hawakuwa wanavaa chupi hivyo wakitaka kujisaidia haja ndogo walikuwa wanasimama tu na kupanua miguu na kuanza kukojoa.
Nyakati za leo ambapo uvaaji chupi kwa wanaume na wanawake uko juu sana kuanzia watu tunapokuwa watoto wadogo hali ya Afya ya viungo vya uzazi imeendelea kuwa mbaya sana. Yafuatayo ni baadhi ya madhara ya kuvaa chupi :

1. Magonjwa ya "Urinary tract infection" au UTI hayataisha kwako.

Hii hasa ni kwa wanawake wanavaa nguo nyingi kwa wakati mmoja na kwa muda mrefu zaidi ya saa kumi. Unavaa chupi, lakini tight, suruali ya jinzi, nk halafu unashinda na hizo nguo kuanzia asubuhi unapoenda kazini hadi saa mbili usiku unaporudi home. Hiyo ni hatari sana.
Mwanamke anayefanya kazi zinazompasa kuwepo kazini zaidi ya masaa 8 namshauri asiwe anavaa chupi kabisa. Chupi ivaliwe nyakati za hedhi tu. Kama hauko kwenye siku zako vaa suruali tu bila chupi. Au vaa underskirt pekee yake kwa ndani na ndoo uvae nguo yako ya kawaida. Hii itakuepusha na kuugua UTI. Ukiacha sababu za ngono UTI husababishwa na bacteria wanaopendelea mahali penye unyevu na joto. Kwa hiyo mwanamke akivaa nguo nyingi bacteria hao hujipatia joto la kutosha kuzaana.
Mwanamke ni vyema ukaepuka kuvaa nguo za kubana mwili sana ili kuepukana na uwezekano wa kupafanya ukeni pawe na joto sana na ikitokea bacteria mmoja tu akaingia humo atazaa haraka sana na kujikuta UTI inakuwa rafiki yako. Vaa sketi bila chupi au kama kuvaa suruali ni lazima hakikisha unavaa suruali peke yake. Jizoeze tu utazoea. Na ukizoea kuvaa nguo bila chupi utainjoi sana.

2. Magonjwa ya kuvu au fungus hayatakoma kwako.


Bado niko kwa wanawake, kama nilivyoeleza mwanzo hapo magonjwa ya fungus yanasababishwa pia na kuvaa chupi kwa muda mrefu. Chupi inayovaliwa kwa zaidi ya saa 8 lazima italeta ukungu au uvundo sehemu nyeti. Huo uvundo waweza kuleta fungus ukeni. Fungus za ukeni hazina tofauti na zile za miguuni kwa wanaume wanaovaa viatu kwa muda mrefu bila usafi miguuni wa kutosha.
Chupi inakuwa kama socks za wanaume. Mwanamke avaae chupi muda mrefu bila kuruhusu upepo upite ndani ni watapata fungus ukeni sawa na mwanaume anayevaa socksi zisizofaa kiafya. Chupi au socks zinazofaa ni zile za pamba au cotton.

Of course sababu za kupata ugonjwa wa fungus kwa mwanamke siyo tu kuvaa chupi inayobanaaaa kwa muda mrefu ni pamoja na kutawadha kwa kutumia maji ambapo maji hayo huacha unyevu ambao hutengeneza uvundo unaopelekea fungus ukeni.
Wanawake wengi hawajui kutawadha kwa kutumia maji. Wengi wamalizapo kujitawadha haja kubwa ndipo hurudi kujisafisha ukeni. Hii ni hatari sana kwani bacteria watokanao na kinyesi unawahamisha kutoka nyuma na kuwaleta mbele.
Mwanamke unapaswa kutawadha kwanza mbele kisha umalizie nyuma. 🐓🐕
Yaani hakikisha kuwa uchafu wa nyuma unaoweza kuwa umebakia kwenye vidole vyako usiuingize ukeni kwa namna yoyote ukijarib kuchunguza wanawake wengi hufuga kucha tena mkono wa kushoto iwje akitawadha uchafu usibaki kwenye kucha? tena kwa usahaulifu anajifashia mkono huo huo wenye kucha ndefu ambazo tayari zipo contaminated?. Tawadha pande zote lakini uhakikishe kuwa haviingiliani mbele na nyuma. Sawa dada yangu?? Uko poa hapo??
Kikubwa hapa ni usafi wa mbele na nyuma. Usafi wa chupi zetu. Uvaaji chupi wetu.
Kwa mfano uwapo safarini tena safari ndefu ya zaidi ya saa 8 ni vyema ukasafiri bila kuvaa chupi isipokuwa tu kama uko kwenye siku zile za adabu. Hata kama uko kwenye siku za adabu ni vyema ukasafiri bila kuvaa manguo mengi sana yanayobana mwili. Vaa chupi na sketi au suruali isiyoubana sana mwili wako.



3. Chupi husababisha ugumba kwa wanaume.

Sababu nyingi za ugumba tunaweza ukizipata kutoka kwa madaktari wetu wa hospitali zetu. Lakini kwangu mimi sababu nyingine ya ugumba wa wanaume kuwa ni kuvaa chupi zinazobana sana.
Mwanaume wengi siku hizi hawavai chupi. Anavaa kaptura au boxa badala ya chupi. Tena havai kaptura inayobana sana. Anavaa isiyobana viungo muhimu kwa uzalishaji wa watoto. Mbegu za kiume huzalishwa kwa wingi wakati wa baridi. Kuvaa chupi inayobana kwa muda mrefu husababisha korodani kuchemka sana na kushindwa kuzalisha mbegu nyingi. Mwanaume mwenye mbegu chache hushindwa kutungisha mimba kwani mbegu zake zinakwenda ukeni huku zikiwa dhaifu na kushindwa kuogelea ukeni.


4. Chupi husababisha miwasho sana kwenye mapaja ya mwanaume na mwanamke.

Epuka kuvaa chupi zinazobana ili kuepukana na miwasho.

Sunday, 29 May 2016

Tanzania PEOPLE 2016


SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES

















Page last updated on June 20, 2014Nationality:
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups:
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages:
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Religions:
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Population:
49,639,138
country comparison to the world: 26
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
[see also: Population country ranks ]


Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.6% (male 11,173,655/female 10,962,186)
15-24 years: 19.5% (male 4,838,216/female 4,841,338)
25-54 years: 29.5% (male 7,340,129/female 7,289,483)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 745,214/female 985,524)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 629,483/female 833,910) (2014 est.) 
population pyramid: population pyramid


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 92.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 86.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 %
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total: 17.4 years
male: 17.1 years
female: 17.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.8% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
[see also: Population growth rate country ranks ]

Birth rate:
36.82 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
[see also: Birth rate country ranks ]

Death rate:
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
[see also: Death rate country ranks ]

Net migration rate:
-0.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
[see also: Net migration rate country ranks ]

Urbanization:
urban population: 26.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 3.588 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.6
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
[see also: Mother's mean age at first birth country ranks ]

Maternal mortality rate:
460 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 23
[see also: Maternal mortality rate country ranks ]

Infant mortality rate:
total: 43.74 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 49
male: 45.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.24 years
country comparison to the world: 190
male: 59.91 years
female: 62.62 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.95 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
[see also: Total fertility rate country ranks ]

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
34.4% (2009/10)
[see also: Contraceptive prevalence rate country ranks ]

Health expenditures:
7.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 78
[see also: Health expenditures country ranks ]

Physicians density:
0.01 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
[see also: Physicians density country ranks ]

Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
[see also: Hospital bed density country ranks ]

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 77.9% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 53.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2012 est.)Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 24.9% of population
rural: 7.5% of population
total: 12.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 75.1% of population
rural: 92.5% of population
total: 87.8% of population (2012 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
5.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
[see also: HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,472,400 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
[see also: HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
80,000 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
[see also: HIV/AIDS - deaths country ranks ]

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 156
[see also: Obesity - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.2% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 44
[see also: Children under the age of 5 years underweight country ranks ]

Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 37
[see also: Education expenditures - percent of GDP country ranks ]

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 75.5%
female: 60.8% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2012)
Child labor - children ages 5-14:
total number: 2,815,085
percentage: 21 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 and does not in (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 7.1% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 129


NOTE: The information regarding Tanzania on this page is re-published from the 2016 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Tanzania PEOPLE 2016 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Tanzania PEOPLE 2016 should be addressed to the CIA.

A Culture of Circumcision in the Kurya Tribe of Tanzania (SMGEO likes To End Female Genital Mutilation).Join Us !!


Traveling north from the city of Arusha, Tanzania, one passes by the world-famous Ngorongoro crater and the vast plains of the Serengeti before coming to Musoma. The town of Musoma is located on the shore of Lake Victoria, the third largest lake in the world, whose size is greater than Britain and Germany put together.
The local people’s livelihoods are tied to the lake, as most of them are engaged in fishing, the main business that provides commerce to the town. The Mara region, home to Musoma, borders Kenya and part of the different ethnic people who live in Tanzania also live in Kenya.
There are many ethnic groups in Mara, but the major one is known as the Kurya tribe. Within this tribe, there are multiple ethnic groups that have identified themselves with the location where they live.
Each ethnic group speaks the Kurya language, but there are some differences depending on the specific dialects. These ethnic groups also have different cultural practices, such as how they conduct funeral services, their customs for when a child is born, and other manners of celebration.
Circumcision, performed on both males and females, is a major cultural practice throughout the Kurya ethnic groups. It is such an important practice among the community members that when an uncircumcised foreigner comes to live among them, he or she is forced into circumcision.
How Circumcision Affects the Church
Churches are affected because their congregations are forced to undergo the ritual. During the season of circumcision, church attendance drops until the season is over.
To prevent this situation from continuing, there is a need to provide continued education, especially among children, so that they can change the society in the long run. It is important to start investing in small children, and we are working hard to protect children and act as their advocates.
Circumcision in the Kurya Tribe
Male circumcision is practiced all over the region, and female circumcision is practiced in some places like the Serengeti and Tarime districts where the Wakira, Wanyabasi, Wanyanchoka and Watimbaru ethnic groups are found. These are also the ethnic groups that fight each other from time to time.
A person being circumcised is expected to be very brave and not display any sign of fear. When being circumcised, an individual is expected to stay still and not show he or she is experiencing pain. There are people who watch to see that the person being circumcised observes the rules.
Women who circumcise others are known as “Omsali” in the Kurya language, or “Ngariba” in Kiswahili. Not every woman can be Omsali; this is a clan right that is passed down from one generation to another.
To perform the circumcision, the Omsali used to use a sharp piece of metal, which was prepared by special people. But nowadays they use a razor blade when circumcising women and a knife for men.
Why Are Men Circumcised?
The cultural norm is that men should be circumcised. If a man dies and he is not circumcised, he will be circumcised before he is buried..
Circumcision is a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. After circumcision, the boy is no longer considered “mrisya” (a child) and has the freedom to make his own decisions. If a man is not circumcised, he is considered to be a child, even if he is over 50 years old. It is a great insult to address a man as “mrisya.” It can even ignite a great conflict, leading one person to kill another person.
Circumcision gives men the freedom to participate in funeral services. A man who is not circumcised is not allowed to come near a dead person. Circumcision gives men permission to participate in civil wars. And, circumcision gives a man the right to look after the family, which means he can marry.
If a man is not circumcised, he does not know in which age group to belong, and no girl will agree to be married to man who is not circumcised.
Women do not like to be married to a man who was circumcised in a hospital. They say they feel like they are being married to their fellow woman.
Why Are Women Circumcised?
Female circumcision is also regarded as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. It is rare to find a girl above age 10 who is not circumcised, and this can explain why there have been early marriages and young mothers who are less than 18 years old.
Female circumcision is done to make women less sexually active because many men spend a lot of time away from home when they go away for wars and battles against other ethnic clans.
They also perform female circumcision to try to make women not go outside the marriage and have extramarital affairs.
Women from other tribes who are married to Kurya and are not circumcised will be circumcised when giving birth.
Preparation for Circumcision
Circumcision is prohibited in July and August. Circumcision is also prohibited during years ending in the number 7, because a year ending in number 7 is considered to be a bad year.
Traditional leaders consult the spirits. The traditional leader goes to a river (Nyesiba River, in Baribari village) to ask “the snake” if it’s safe to do circumcision in that particular year.
The traditional leaders ask this question by placing two empty calabashes (a type of gourd) by the side of the river, and then they go away. The next day they come to see what has happened, and if they find the calabash full of water, they consider the year to be good and circumcision preparations continue.
But if they find the calabashes half full, they know the year is not good and they perform cleansing rituals before they continue. The cleansing is done by consulting traditional medicine men, who announce that a person (normally a pregnant woman or a young man) in the village will die. Once the chosen person dies, the cleansing has passed and the circumcision process continues.
If individuals die before they have healed from the circumcision, they will not be buried in their village. The burial will be done secretly in a neighboring village.
If the other village discovers this, they will find a way to retaliate against the people who buried their dead. This has been one of the main causes of the endless conflicts among the ethnic groups.
If you are willing to support us to end FGM please contact us
managing director
SMGEO
P.O.BOX 6444 MOROGORO
Email: smgeo2015@gmail.com
+255 753 599 827
Web:www.smgeoorg.blogspot.com

Women have better chances of getting hired when competing against women !!


A female candidate’s chances of being hired are statistically zero if she is the only woman in a pool of finalists, a recent report on job hiring practices found
 Having just one woman or minority candidate for a job ‘isn’t a true diversity effort’, one of the study’s authors said. Photograph: Alamy
If you are a woman applying for a job, having another woman in the final candidate pool could significantly improve your chances by 50%, according to a recent report.
“When there is only one woman, she does not stand a chance of being hired, but that changes dramatically when there is more than one,” the report’s authors wrote in the Harvard Business Review on Tuesday.
“When there was only one woman or minority candidate in a pool of four finalists, their odds of being hired were statistically zero. But when we created a new status quo among the finalist candidates by adding just one more woman or minority candidate, the decision makers actually considered hiring a woman or minority candidate.”
The likelihood that a woman would be hired.
 The likelihood that a woman would be hired. Photograph: Stefanie Johnson/Courtesy of University of Colorado
The report was based on three different studies, conducted by researchers at the University of Colorado’s Leeds School of Business. In the first study, 144 undergraduate students were deciding between three job candidates – some of which had what the report’s authors called “stereotypically black names”The study found that if the majority of finalists were white, participants tended to recommend a white candidate and if majority of finalists were black, they would recommend a black candidate. In the second study, 200 students made a similar decision, but this time based on gender.
In the third study, the researchers looked at 598 finalists considered for jobs at a university – 174 of those finalists received job offers over a three-year period. The average hiring pool for this study was four finalists.
While some might consider these candidate pools small, a typical corporate job listing receives 250 applications on average. Those resumes are then sorted either by software or a recruiting manager and are narrowed down to a pool of four to six finalists, who are then called in for an interview.
The report was authored byStefanie K Johnson and David R Hekman, both assistant professors, and Elsa T Chan, a PhD candidate at the university. On 12 April, the national equal pay day, they presented their findings at the White House.
Among the feedback they received was shock at the fact that one minority or female candidate in the finalist pool is not enough, according to Johnson.
“So many companies, for such a long time, have been working to get a woman in the pool: ‘We have to get one woman in the pool. We have to get one minority in the pool.’ And that’s been [human resources] effort to at least get one minority candidate,” she explained “And what this paper says is that it’s not enough to include just one female or one minority candidate in the pool to make yourself feel better. It isn’t a true diversity effort.”
The researchers themselves were surprised at how much the subjects in their studies fell in line with the status quo.
“I was extremely shocked [by the findings],” Hekman told the Guardian.

Pinterest
 Being the only woman in the finalist pool for a job could hurt your chances. Photograph: Alamy
One of the more interesting findings was that “people who were the most sexist and the most racist were also the most likely to be sensitive to the bias”, Johnson said.
“Maybe that’s what the future research should look at: what’s the thought process here?” said Johnson. “Because I have been in hiring situations where people are like, well, we can’t just hire this person because they are a minority. But if you didn’t know they were minority, you might have hired the person anyway. If you are pigeonholed as that one minority, no one really looks at their qualifications, they just look at the fact that they are a woman.”
To those worried that including a second minority or female candidate to the finalist pool is “a type of affirmative action or reverse discrimination against white men”, researchers point out the breakdown of the US workforce.
According to the most recent jobs report from the US department of labor, there are 65 million white men in the workforce and about 55 million white women. And while particular minorities make up a smaller portions of the workforce – there are 8.7 million African-American men, 9.7 million African-American women, 14.5 million Hispanic men and 10.8 million Hispanic women – altogether they make up 43.7 million people in the workforce.
Furthermore, the argument that all-white male candidate pools are due to skills shortages among people of color and women also doesn’t hold up. In 2014, 29.9% of men and 30.2% of women had graduated college, according to the US census bureau. A new report published by the Economic Policy Institute also found that recent young black college graduates aged 20 t0 24 “currently have an unemployment rate of 9.4% – higher than the peak unemployment rate for young white college during the recession”, which was 9%.
“This is the solution for this huge problem of diversity in organizations,” said Hekman. “It’s simple. How do you get more diversity at the top? How do you get more diversity anywhere? How do you make a more balanced organization? This is it. Have two women. Have two minority [candidates].”
Johnson and her colleagues agree that their report is not a definitive piece of research on the subject.
“To be sure, our findings would need to be replicated in order to see how these effects play out in other contexts, and we should note that the study results have not appeared in a peer-reviewed journal,” they wrote in HBR.

“However, we think these results are a great foundation for future research to build on. As a society, we have spent a lot of time talking about our diversity problem but have been slow to provide solutions. We believe this ‘get two in the pool effect’ represents an important first step to overcoming unconscious biases and ushering in the racial and gender balance that we want in organizations.”

‘Women Need the Chance to Show How Good They Are’


An increasing number of women are taking seats on the boards of stock market-listed companies, but there’s still room for improvement as Shelina Begum finds out.



The role of women in business is increasingly in the spotlight. This has been partly driven by the government-backed report from Lord Mervyn Davies, who has been championing gender equality in the boardroom.
The report calls for at least a third of boardroom positions at Britain’s biggest companies to be held by women by the end of the decade, raising its previous aim of 25 per cent in 2015.
So far, FTSE 100 companies have exceeded the target of 25 per cent – more than doubling the number in 2011 when the target was set.
Then, just 135 of 1,076 (12.5 per cent) FTSE 100 directorships were held by women.
Lady Barbara Judge CBE, the Institute of Directors (IoD) first female chair in its 110-year history, said that the strength of the targets has been successful in the UK.
With recent high-profile appointments including that of the CBI’s first female director-general, Carolyn Fairbairn, and the British Bankers’ Association first female chair in its 96-year history, Noreen Doyle, the focus on women has never been stronger.
Lady Judge said: “The remarkable success in increasing the number of women on boards in the UK over the past six years shows how enthusiastically businesses have embraced their role as champions of female progression. Now, we must channel this progress into tackling the next item on the agenda – getting more women into senior, executive, decision-making roles. The onus must be on employers to do everything they can to harness their female talent. After all, it is a business’ loss if it fails to make the most of half their workforce.
She adds: “I believe if the chairman and CEO want it to happen, they can make it possible.”
The IoD has recently called on businesses and employers to step up their efforts to increase the number of women in executive leadership positions.
Lady Judge, who in 1983 was appointed the first female board executive director of London merchant bank, Samuel Montagu & Co, and has since held a series of senior positions in banking in the US and UK, outlined three measures she wants to see businesses explore which could make it easier for women to make it to the top table in greater numbers. These include:
1. Shake-up recruitment practices. All companies should look at measures such as gender-blind applications and make sure there is a woman on the interview or recruitment panel for senior roles.
2. Job-sharing and part-time executive roles. Where possible, businesses should introduce flexible working schedules, including job-sharing and part-time roles for their most senior positions to make it easier for both men and women to fit career progression around their family lives.
3. Mentoring. Businesses must champion women in senior positions and use them to help support those throughout their organisation and show them ambitions of the c-suite are both realistic and achievable.
Lady Judge said: “Shaking up recruitment practices is what we are doing. I believe if you pay a woman for four days a week, she will give you five days a week, there is no question about it. A female colleague will work extremely hard and the organisation will get good value for money.
“Quite a long time ago, a businessman told me that he only hired women. I asked him why?
“He said it made good economics. He said you can give women time off at home but they still get the job done!
“I believe that to progress we have to get big businesses to make senior roles more flexible and therefore make it easier for women, and even men, to fit their career progression around their family lives.
“When I was young and I wanted to go and see my son in a play, I would have had to say I had a meeting to go to, but today it is perfectly permissible to say that, so we have made a lot of progress, but not enough.
“I also think that we have to champion and help women by making sure they are mentored, so that they have someone to talk to, show them that ambitions to get to that senior executive level is possible.
“They have to be encouraged, mentored and supported so that the path will be open.
“I’m not saying that we should promote women who aren’t capable but we have to give them the career path to prove that they are acceptable.
“We have to give them experiences and opportunity to work in profit-making and in profitable parts of the business, not just staff roles such as HR and strategy. If we don’t give them the opportunities to show how good they are and give them the tools to learn the game, they will never win it.”
Vanda Murray OBE, the former CEO of Blick, a FTSE quoted support services group, and currently holding a portfolio of non-executive directorships including at Exova, Bunzl, Manchester Airports Group, Microgen, and Fenner, agrees that a shake up of the recruitment process is needed and will eliminate any ‘unconscious bias’ and that more work needs to be done to see more women rise up the ranks in executive level positions.
“Women are progressing as they should,” says Murray.
“Organisations are a little bit geared towards men and that’s because men are in the majority.
“There is a real problem of unconscious bias, it’s something that is just beginning to get a little bit of traction now.
“People don’t realise it, but we all like people a little bit like ourselves, and therefore you have to really learn to put that to one side and focus on the skills to get the right person for the right job irrespective of gender, ethnicity, or religion. I think both men and women need training to do that.”

She adds: “What we have recently seen is that really good women have been appointed to the top of the organisation, so the target at the top is being met but not being met through the executive side, and that’s a concern. That means you have to go back through the organisation, look at the succession plans and any barriers to progression, and that takes a lot more work and more time.”
Both Lady Judge and Murray have also called on companies to recognizes the needs of working parents and that flexibility was key to getting the most out of their staff.
Lady Judge said: “Businesses have to understand that there are pressures such as family and in order to utilise 50% of the country’s talent and brain power, businesses have to make flexible working available so that both men and women have the opportunity to fulfil their family commitments at the same as their professional commitment.
“I do believe that if you have a supportive partner and supportive employer, then you can have both a good job with a strong successful career together with a good family life. But you need both.”
In May, it will be a year since Lady Judge took up her position as chair of the IoD, and it’s been a high-profile role which she says has been exciting and noteworthy.
“It’s been a great honour and privilege to be leading such an important organisation and I have been thrilled to be given the opportunity to make a case for women in a place where people can hear me. I am trying very hard to make the doors open wider to women at the IoD. There has always been women here but I want more.
“Sometimes it takes a woman to open the door so that another woman would walk through it.
And of her own challenges in the workplace, Lady Judge says: “When I moved to Hong Kong and became a banker, the man who was my predecessor was horrified that a woman was appointed as a director. I heard he was quoted as saying that no woman would take his seat. It was hard, I had to establish my own credibility with my own colleagues.”
She adds: “When I started in my career and people talked about ‘ambition’ in relation to a woman, it was a slur, but if you said the same word about a man, it was a compliment.
word about a man, it was a compliment. We have a come along way from that now.
“The next generation will have it easier because the sons of working women will assume that’s the way it always was and always should be.
“My son wasn’t mad at me for working all the time, he was proud.”
Sandra Ondraschek-Norris, from Catalyst Europe, the leading global non-profit organisation on advancing women in the workplace spoke about busting myths about women in the workplace when she attended a one-day conference organised by the Women Leaders’ Association, to mark International Women’s Day.
The Irish-born, Swiss-based senior director with the organisation, says that when it comes to supporting women, men have often taken a back seat.
“Men have been left out of the conversation to date as so many companies have framed diversity and inclusion efforts as ‘women’s work’, so Catalyst has tried to reframe the conversation to make sure that the dominant group is involved,” she said.
“Men and women don’t advance equally until they hit that glass ceiling, we have found that they lack from day one in terms of pay, in terms of advancement and we have done a whole series of studies around this.”
The organisation has been following the lives of a group of female MBA graduates for the last decade, looking at their pipeline of work, strategies, career progression, choices both in the workplace and at home, to see the impact it has had.
Ondraschek-Norris says: “The myth that women don’t ask, that they are not proactive, that they choose not to relocate or turn down international assignments, all those things have been shown to have been myths.
“Women do ask and they do say yes to international assignments. These are women who have invested in their career, they are clearly educated and ambitious but they are still lagging.”
She added: “Men are the solution to the barriers. The key barriers are bias and stereotypes, when people think leader, they think male. There’s a lot of views of leadership we are working with, which are still outdated.”
Marne Martin, CEO of Service Power, the Stockport-based AIM-listed field management software specialist, says her career progression has been positive.
“I have been very privileged and fortunate to have opportunities throughout my career and they’ve been given to me by men,” says Martin.
“I totally passionately believe in the value of women generally moving up the rank and getting women from middle management to take on leading roles in management but also board appointments.
“It is definitely a multi-faceted issue. I think targets are helpful as its gives companies objectives to measure themselves against and brings attention to the issue, but I think
where targets are problematic, at least in the initial stages of implementing a quota, is that if you haven’t spent the last 10 or 20 years cultivating that talent, you might not have the talent to put on the board even if you have a quota.
“I think it’s very good to have at least elective quotas and we have to be aware that leading a company or contributing to a board really is something that will have to deliver value.
“If quotas or targets mean that people who are under qualified are put in positions they are not ready for, then that won’t put in as much value as the qualified women.
“We have to continue to cultivate more women to get qualified for those positions and when you do have that body of qualified women, obviously then having targets will be helpful.”